Media coverage

Ebbets Pass Forest Watch

 Endgame

Forests & Corporations

Profile of Sierra Pacific Industries

© February 1999 by George Draffan
Public Information Network
www.endgame.org

originally compiled for the Foundation for Deep Ecology
Building 1062, Fort Cronkhite, Sausalito CA 94965

footnoted version available by e-mail request

 

 SPI corporate headquarters

19794 Riverside Ave Phone: 916-365-3721
Anderson CA 96007  

PO Box 496028 Phone: 530-378-8000
Redding CA 96049  

http://www.spi-ind.com/

http://www.sierrapacificwindows.com/

Roseburg sells California timberlands. Business Journal Portland, August 17, 2004
Roseburg Forest Products has agreed to sell approximately 45,000 acres of its Northern California timberlands to Sierra Pacific Industries... Privately held Roseburg did not disclose the sale price. In addition to the 45,000-acre transaction, scheduled to close in September, Roseburg reached agreement to sell Sierra Pacific a package of 88,000 more acres of timberland over the next four years. "These timberland assets are geographically separated from our core operations in Northern California, but very strategic for Sierra Pacific," said Ray Jones, vice president of resources for Roseburg Forest Products. The Roseburg-based company manages nearly 800,000 acres of land in Northern California and Southern Oregon.

Related Corporations
Elk River Timber, Arcata CA
Sierra Pacific Foundation, Bend OR
Sierra Pacific Holding Co., Redding CA
Sierra Pacific Windows

Unrelated Corporations
Sierra Forest Products (Terra Bella CA)
Sierra Forest Industries (Dinuba CA)
Sierra Pine Ltd. (Rocklin CA)
Sierra Forest Products (UCS Forest Group)
Sierra Land Management

SPI to Close Small-Log Sawmill in Quincy, CA. Campbell Group Timber Trends, March 2009
Sierra Pacific Industries (SPI) announced it will close its small-log sawmill located in Quincy, CA on May 4, 2009. According to SPI, the challenging lumber market combined with litigation over timber harvests on nearby national forest lands were the primary drivers behind the decision to close the plant. Area manager Matt Taborski said "The reduced availability of national forest timber resulting from litigation forced SPI to transport logs over long distances at greater cost to keep the mill running," he added. "Today’s lumber prices are not sufficient to cover these increased costs. To make things worse, environmental litigation has not only reduced the mill’s raw material supply, but also increased the risk of wildfires in the area" he continued. This mill is part of a two-mill complex – one cutting small diameter logs and the other cutting large diameter logs into lumber for domestic consumption. About 150 employees will be affected by this closure. Approximately 160 will remain employed at the large-log facility and biomass electric generation plant.

Statistics
Sales (1997): $1 billion
Employees: 3,200
Op profits (1997): $115 million
Timberland: 1.3 million acres
Net profits (1997): $38 million
Lumber prod: 1.3 bill bd ft/year.
Sources: Forbes Private 500 ranking, Dec 1998; Hawn 1997; and SPI website, Dec 1998.

Facts
Largest private landowner in North America, with 1.3 million acres.
Owns 28 percent of the 4.57 million acres of timber industry land in California.
Largest purchaser of public timber in California.
Ranked 192 on the Forbes 500 list of private corporations in the U.S.
SPI chairman Red Emmerson is ranked 161 on the Forbes 400 list of richest Americans (based on an estimated worth of $1.1 billion).
Funded timber industry campaign against Forests Forever initiative in California.
Helped create the Sierra Accord and Quincy Library Groups.

 

Sierra Pacific Industries: A Family-held Corporation

Raleigh Humes (Curly) Emmerson founded the predecessor of Sierra Pacific Industries (SPI) in the late 1920s with sawmills California and Oregon. Curly and his son Archie Aldis (Red) Emmerson leased a mill in Humboldt County in 1949, and two years later completed construction of a sawmill in Arcata. The current SPI corporation was established in 1969.

In 1974, a rift between SPI founders J.B. Crook and Red Emmerson resulted in the reversion from a publicly-owned to a privately-owned company. Crook resigned as chairman and director, SPI repurchased the stock held by the Crook family, and offered to repurchase any outstanding shares not already owned by the Emmerson family.

Red is now chairman. Red's son George Emmerson is vice president of sales and operations. Red's son Mark Emmerson is chief financial officer. Red's daughter, Carolyn Emmerson Dietz, is president of the Sierra Pacific Foundation and lives in Bend, Oregon. "Red, his sons and daughter, all continue to observe the traditional family values established by Curly of treating each team member with respect and dignity and providing them with the tools and opportunities to excel in their work."

Growing SPI

In 1973, it was reported that SPI's net profits more than doubled since the previous year, to more than $12 million (on sales of $124 million). Twenty years later, sales were estimated at $1 billion, with operating profits of $115 million and net profits of $38 million. Sierra Pacific Industries had grown by buying up land and companies, gaining its reputation as a "very aggressive, big player on the West Coast." Between 1976 and 1986, SPI spent $60 million acquiring the assets of other companies, but the biggest was yet to come. In 1987, SPI bought 522,000 acres of California timberland from the Santa Fe Southern Pacific Railroad, which still held public land from the nineteenth century homestead era (see section below on the railroad land grant). By the mid-1990s, SPI has paid another $600 million for another 400,000 acres. SPI now holds 1.3 of the 4.5 million acres of timber industry land in California, making it the country's largest private landowner (just ahead of Ted Turner). Using an average price of $1,700 per acre, Sierra Pacific's timber holdings alone are worth more than $2 billion.

According to SPI's website, the corporation's "confidence in the future is solidly rooted in some of the finest timberland in the world. Stretching from the Oregon border on the Pacific Coast to near Yosemite near central California, Sierra Pacific lands grow Ponderosa Pine, Sugar Pine, White Fir, Douglas Fir and Cedar."

Major land purchases by Sierra Pacific Industries include:

Year

Seller

Acreage

Location

1978

Times Mirror

69,000

Northern California

1987

Santa Fe Southern Pacific RR

520,000

Redding, Lake Tahoe, Grass Valley

1989

Fibreboard

49,000

Truckee

1991

Bohemia

33, 000

 

1995

Fibreboard

76,000

Standard, Chinese Camp, Red Bluff, Keystone

1997

Georgia-Pacific

127,000

Amador County

1997

Louisiana-Pacific

38,000

Feather Falls near Oroville

 

total

 

 

 SPI has sold some land holdings north of the Sacramento River.

 

The Southern Pacific Railroad Land Grant

Between 1850 and 1870, during the homestead era, the federal government passed dozens of public lands laws which allowed railroad corporations to sell federal lands in order to raise the capital necessary for the construction of the nation's railroad system. Many of the railroads received more public land than they needed for construction, and millions of acres were retained by the railroads or sold to timber, mining, and real estate corporations rather than to settlers. (See Appendix 3: Railroad Land Grant-Based Corporations). The Southern Pacific Railroad acquired one of the largest of the land grants, almost seven million acres. When Teddy Roosevelt's Bureau of Corporations published its report on The Lumber Industry in 1913-1914, it showed the three largest holders of timber in the U.S. -- all of them based on the land grants intended for homesteaders:

 

 

Railroad

Timber

(billion bd ft)

Timber land (million acres)

Total land

(million acres)

Southern Pacific

71 Oregon

35 California

3.8

13.8

Northern Pacific

36

3

9.9

Weyerhaeuser

77 Washington

19 Oregon

1.9

 

 

Eventually a large proportion of the land grants were reclaimed by the federal government, including three million acres wrongfully held by the Southern Pacific's subsidiary Oregon and California Railroad. Still, by the 1940s, mergers and acquisitions had boosted the Southern Pacific's land grant holdings to 18 million acres, and by 1970, Southern Pacific still retained almost four million acres in its "Golden Empire," from agribusiness holdings to timberland to urban real estate.

In 1983, the Southern Pacific merged with Santa Fe Industries to form Santa Fe Southern Pacific Corporation (SFSP), but in 1987 the U.S. ICC rejected the merger, and SFSP began restructuring by selling off the Southern Pacific Railroad, real estate, and timberland, pipelines, construction operations. The sell-off included 520,000 acres of timberland held by its Santa Fe Pacific Timber Company, to SPI for $460 million. This land was in three large tracts: 220,000 acres north of Lake Tahoe, 200,000 acres in the Shasta region north of Redding, and 100,000 acres between Grass Valley and Lake Tahoe. So much of SPI's timber empire is based on nineteenth century railroad grant lands intended for settlers.

 

Chronology of SPI's Acquisitions

In 1974, Louisiana-Pacific and SPI reported merger talks for L-P to acquire SPI for $68 million.

In 1992, SPI purchased timberlands and conversion facilities from RLC Industries Co.

In 1974, SPI bought an interest in the Welch Corporation.

In 1974, Champion International bought a particleboard plant from SPI chairman J.B. Crook.

In 1975, Southwest Forest Industries bought SPI's Happy Camp sawmill.

In 1976, Feather River Lumber was sold to SPI for at least $13 million.

In 1978, Times Mirror sold 69,000 acres of timberland and a sawmill in northern California to SPI for about $36 million.

In 1989, Sierra Pacific Industries acquired 49,000 acres and a cutting contract on 19,000 acres in the Truckee area from Fibreboard for $11.5 million.

In 1991, SPI acquired three mills and 33,000 acres of timberland in California from Bohemia; Willamette Industries bought all the stock of Bohemia.

In 1994, the U.S. Department of Justice approved the sale of 102-year-old Michigan- California Lumber Co. mill in Camino (Eldorado County) to SPI; the sale would save the jobs of 300 people, according to the Western Council of Industrial Workers, which represents industrial workers at the mill.

In 1995, Fibreboard Corp sold its wood products group to SPI for $245 million, including 76,000 acres of timberland and its facilities at Standard, Chinese Camp, Red Bluff and Keystone, California.

In 1997, SPI purchased from Georgia-Pacific for $320 million a sawmill and a particle-board plant in Martell, and 127,000 acres of timberland in Amador County.

In 1997, Louisiana-Pacific sold 38,000 acres of white fir and pine near Oroville to SPI for $50 million.

 

SPI Operations and Facilities

The SPI mill at Anderson can produce up to 800,000 board feet of lumber per day. Recently Sierra Pacific has produced about 1.3 billion board feet of lumber annually, enough to build 300 new houses every day. Only Weyerhaeuser and Georgia-Pacific produce more lumber.

Address

City

Phone

Operations

19794 Riverside Ave

Anderson

CA 96007-4908

530-378-8000

lumber, poles, pilings, crossarms, window units

2293 Samoa Rd

Arcata

CA 95521-9600

707-443-3111

boards, pattern stock, stepping, crossarms, chips, sawdust, millwork

36336 State Hwy 299 E

Burney

CA 96013-9600

530-335-3681

sawmill

3950 Carson Rd

Camino

CA 95709-9506

530-644-2311

sawmill

3735 El Cajon Ave

Central Valley CA 96019-9211

530-275-8851

 

 

Chinese Camp CA

 

sawmill

Alameda Rd

Corning

CA 96021-9211

530-824-2474

 

1206 W 14th St

Eureka

CA 95501-2122

707-443-7039

 

900 Whispering Pines Ln

Grass Valley

CA 95945-9370

530-272-2297

 

16641 Hale Ave # B

Irvine

CA 92606-5025

714-833-0555

windows

12001 La Grange Rd

Jamestown

CA 95327-9724

209-984-5853

 

1009 Warm Springs Rd

Ketchum

ID 83340-1701

208-726-2655

windows

1445 Hwy 65

Lincoln

CA 95648-9724

916-645-1631

lumber, crossarms, pencil stock

Railroad Ave

Loyalton

CA 96118

530-993-4402

sawmill

Highway 49

Martell

CA 95654

209-223-7170

 

2393 Teller Rd

Newbury Park CA 91320-2230

805-376-6060

windows

PO Box 1057

Orinda

CA 94563-0705

925-254-5463

 

1538 Lee Rd

Quincy

CA 95971-9687

530-283-2820

boards, lumber

PO Box 8489

Red Bluff

CA 96080-8489

530-582-4181

windows

11400 Reading Rd

Red Bluff

CA 96080-9687

530-529-5108

secondary mfg

11605 Reading Rd

Red Bluff

CA 96080-9745

530-527-9620

windows

 

Richfield

CA

 

millwork, dist center

2038 Concourse Dr # A

San Jose

CA 95131-1701

408-577-0280

windows

 

Shasta Lake CA

 

sawmill

9612 E Montgomery

Spokane

WA 99206-4118

509-927-8252

windows

 

Standard

CA

 

sawmill

16980 Skyway

Stirling City

CA 95978-9687

530-873-0530

 

Sunkist Dr

Susanville

CA 96130-9687

530-257-2158

boards, dimension lumber, pattern stock

245 Main St

Weaverville

CA 96093-9687

530-623-4301

 

 

Wood Products

"Sierra Pacific is one of the nation's leading manufacturers of mouldings and millwork. The Millwork Division accounts for approximately one-third of the company's sales and employment. This division utilizes a portion of the lumber produced from Sierra Pacific's timberland resources. This "value added" approach through vertical integration of products has led to SPI's reputation throughout the industry of commitment, quality and stability. A variety of products is manufactured and several different markets are served. SPI products include:

"Sierra Pacific Windows is one of the fastest growing wood and clad window companies in the United States today. With sales representatives throughout the eleven western states, Sierra Pacific offers a complete line of wood and clad windows and doors... Sierra Pacific's exclusive clad Estate Series windows and doors offer... extruded aluminum, powder coated painting and several glazing options..."

 

Automation: Running Out of Big Trees

When Gordon Robinson was hired as a forester by the Southern Pacific in 1937, the railroad owned a million acres of old growth forest. Half a century later, the big trees are gone:

"Sierra Pacific timberlands, which are under modern forest management practices, produce small logs that will supply a substantial portion of future raw materials. Sierra Pacific Industries has mastered the challenge of small log conversion. Modern technology and specialized equipment such as portal cranes, specially designed networks, end-dogging carriage, computer sensors and scanners help keep production levels and product quality high. Many Sierra Pacific mills are efficient producers of high quality lumber from small logs. The log sizes delivered to these facilities will range from six to twenty-eight inches in diameter. Sierra Pacific small log mills complete the effective utilization of the forest resources and provide a source of construction lumber to housing markets worldwide."

Mill Closures

In 1995, when SPI bought timberland and facilities from Fibreboard, about 180 employees at the plywood plant in Standard (Sonora County) were laid off.

In 1997, when SPI purchased land, a sawmill, and a particle-board plant from and from Georgia-Pacific, it already owned three other lumber mills within 40 miles of Martell, so it closed the sawmill, saying that some of the 200 millworkers were expected to be hired at the particle-board plant.

In 1997, SPI closed its 110-employee mill in Hayfork, Trinity County, and moved those operations to Lincoln, northwest of Roseville.

In the summer of 1996, "Republican presidential contender Bob Dole... accused President Clinton of 'abandoning' timber country workers by restricting logging on public lands. Addressing a friendly crowd of about 1,500 people gathered at the Sierra Pacific Industries plant [in Anderson], Dole blamed the administration for the closing of about 140 lumber mills in California and the Pacific Northwest. 'You have been abandoned by this administration,' Dole told the rally, ... 'You've got to have a balance between protecting jobs and family... and the environment.' With freshly cut lumber stacked high behind him, Dole criticized Clinton for stalling implementation of a measure to allow more sales of salvage timber from land owned by the U.S. Forest Service. In recent years, the timber industry in Northern California has suffered huge job losses as the supply of available trees declined, partly because of efforts to preserve endangered species such as the northern spotted owl. Sierra Pacific, the company hosting the event, recently closed its sawmill in Hayfork, a move that cost 150 jobs. The Clinton campaign, however, said the timber industry cutbacks occurred during the Bush administration and that under Clinton logging interests and environmentalists have worked together to conserve forests. 'Bob Dole is practicing the politics of the past, pitting business interests against protectors of the environment," Clinton campaign spokesman Joe Lockhart said.'"

  

Subsidizing SPI

According to Common Cause, SPI topped the list of timber corporations benefiting from national forest road construction subsidies from 1991 to 1997:


Sierra Pacific $20.3 million
Boise Cascade $18.9
Willamette $ 8.8
Weyerhaeuser $ 7.5
Stone Container $ 5.3
Plum Creek $ 4.6
Potlatch $ 4.2

Of these top beneficiaries, the land holdings of all but Willamette and Stone Container have been based upon nineteenth century railroad land grants.

 

SPI's Political Activities

Political contributions sorted by recipient (includes only 1997-98 cycle contributions by Emmerson family members and SPI):

A.A. Emmerson

2/26/98

$1,000

Alby, Barbara

A.A. Emmerson

4/23/98

$5,000

American Forest & Paper Assn

Mark Emmerson

5/20/97

$5,000

American Forest & Paper Assn

Mark Emmerson

3/20/98

$5,000

American Forest & Paper Assn

Mark Emmerson

7/20/98

$250

Chenowith, Helen

A.A. Emmerson

9/24/98

$500

Fazio, Vic

A.A. Emmerson

5/27/97

$500

Fazio, Vic

A.A. Emmerson

10/6/97

$500

Fazio, Vic

A.A. Emmerson

10/6/97

$500

Fazio, Vic

A.A. Emmerson

8/15/97

$1,000

Feinstein, Dianne

Mark Emmerson

9/14/98

$100

Fong, Matt

Mark Emmerson

8/14/98

$900

Fong, Matt

A.A. Emmerson

10/12/98

$1,000

Fong, Matt

A.A. Emmerson

3/31/98

$1,000

Fong, Matt

A.A. Emmerson

10/12/98

$1,000

Fong, Matt

A.A. Emmerson

4/27/98

$1,000

Fong, Matt

Carolyn Emmerson Dietz

8/14/98

$1,000

Fong, Matt

Carolyn Emmerson Dietz

8/14/98

$1,000

Fong, Matt

Mark Emmerson

8/14/98

$1,100

Fong, Matt

A.A. Emmerson

8/14/98

$2,000

Fong, Matt

A.A. Emmerson

8/14/98

$2,000

Fong, Matt

A.A. Emmerson

11/24/97

$300

Golding, Susan

A.A. Emmerson

8/8/97

$400

Golding, Susan

A.A. Emmerson

8/27/98

$250

Herger, Wally

A.A. Emmerson

5/20/98

$250

Herger, Wally

A.A. Emmerson

5/29/98

$250

Herger, Wally

A.A. Emmerson

10/30/97

$400

Herger, Wally

Mark Emmerson

5/29/98

$500

Herger, Wally

A.A. Emmerson

5/30//97

$600

Herger, Wally

Sierra Pacific Industries

11/27/97

$1,500

National Republican Senate Com

A.A. Emmerson

6/30/98

$1,000

Ose, Douglas A

A.A. Emmerson

8/12/98

$1,000

Ose, Douglas A

A.A. Emmerson

8/19/98

$500

Ose, Douglas A.

A.A. Emmerson

9/4/98

$500

Ose, Douglas A.

Mark Emmerson

4/27/98

$1,000

Ose, Douglas A.

Mark Emmerson

6/30/98

$1,000

Ose, Douglas A.

A.A. Emmerson

4/30/98

$2,000

Republican National Committee

A.A. Emmerson

4/30/98

$3,000

Republican National Committee

Mark Emmerson

9/25/98

$1,000

Senatorial Majority Fund

Mark Emmerson

10/31/97

$500

Smith, Gordon

Mark Emmerson

12/31/97

$500

Smith, Gordon

Mark Emmerson

12/31/97

$500

Smith, Gordon

A.A. Emmerson

1/29/98

$1,000

Thompson, Mike

A.A. Emmerson

3/17/98

$1,000

Thompson, Mike

 

Lobbying on Legislation

In 1997, SPI spent $120,000 on lobbying in support of H.R. 2015 and S. 947 (Balanced Budget Act of 1997).

In August 1998, Congressman Wally Herger introduced H.R. 4407, the Biomass Equity Act of 1998. "This needed legislation would ensure the continued growth and development of the biomass power industry by including all biomass power facilities in an already existing energy production tax credit. The American biomass energy industry consists of approximately 125 clean-burning powerplants in more than 25 states that combust biomass materials under controlled conditions and generate renewable electricity for consumer use. These facilities consume approximately 20 million tons of agricultural and forestry residues annually. The "Biomass Equity Act" is endorsed by a wide range of groups, organizations, and businesses, including: the California Forestry Association, the Quincy Library Group, the Union of Concerned Scientists, the Central Sierra Environmental Resource Center, the Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM), the Placer County Air Pollution Control District, the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Burney Forest Products, Sierra Pacific Industries, Operational Energy Corporation, the California Licensed Foresters Association, Wheelabrator Environmental Systems Inc., the California Biomass Energy Alliance, the National Biomass Energy Alliance, Agrilectric Power, Inc., Ogden Power Pacific, Inc., and the Natural Resources Defense Council."

 

Charitable Contributions

The Sierra Pacific Foundation "was established in 1979 to provide scholarship grants and financial support to local charitable organizations in the communities where the company has operations. Initially funded by Sierra Pacific's founder, R.H. "Curly" Emmerson, The Foundation contributes approximately $150,000 annually to educational and community programs. Scholarships totaling over one-third of the contributions are awarded annually on a competitive basis to approximately seventy dependent children of Sierra Pacific employees. The scholarships are awarded by a committee consisting of three prominent local citizens unrelated to Sierra Pacific. The balance of available funds is contributed to qualifying local community groups such as hospitals, fire districts, schools, educational television stations and youth organizations."

 

SPI and the Environment

SPI's website claims that all its forest lands "are managed by professional foresters who practice responsible land stewardship. While providing long-term sustained yields of quality timber, care is taken to preserve the healthy and diverse ecosystems of our forests. SPI's commitment to the protection of the environment has earned respect and approval from governmental agencies and environmental groups as well..."

SPI's record has also earned criticism from environmental groups, such as Citizens for Better Forestry, which has prepared detailed analysis of SPI's "Granite" Timber Harvest Plan northeast of Weaverville. CBF objects to the THP's cumulative impacts on environmental, scenic, recreational, and archaeological grounds.

And as CBF notes, SPI has also earned lawsuits: "Trinity County's District Attorney, David Cross, recently filed a civil suit against SPI for polluting water with hexazinone, the active ingredient in the herbicide Pronone. SPI faces potential fines up to $1 million." (See Appendix 2: Legal Actions Involving SPI).

In public testimony against the 1993 Forest Biodiversity and Clearcutting (Bryant) bill, SPI defended clearcutting as a tool for protecting spotted owl and other forest species:

"Sierra Pacific Industries uses even-age forest management as a component in a careful program to assist recovery of the Northern Spotted Owl. Since 1990, our timberlands have been operating under the guidelines of a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service approved Northern Spotted Owl management plan. While limiting the extent of clearcutting on our property, the plan requires that we use a variety of silviculture systems -- including clearcuts and other even-age methods -- to insure that we can provide the necessary types of habitat for the owl on a sustained basis."

"A large portion of our private timberlands with Northern Spotted Owls were originally acquired through the development of railroads in the last century -- hence, they are "checkerboarded" -- with every other section owned by the Forest Service. Ecologically, our lands are very similar to adjacent Forest Service holdings. Elimination of even-age techniques, as called for in HR 1164, will leave the agency without the critical tools to insure survival of the owl."

"Sierra Pacific Industries timberlands provide habitat for over 400 different species of wildlife on its timberlands. While most of the public concern has focused on those species most often associated with larger and/or older trees as a component of their habitat, the majority of those 400 species require early successional vegetation. In California, that habitat can only be provided by wildfire or even- age silviculture. We prefer to use even-age silviculture and mitigate the potential environmental damage rather than suffer the adverse environmental consequences brought on by massive, searing, intense forest fires."

It is ironic that SPI uses the square-mile checkerboard pattern and the danger of forest fires as rationales for clearcutting, since both are fundamentally reasons for not clearcutting. The checkerboard pattern of clearcuts destroys the ability of alternating checkerboard forest to provide habitat for old growth-dependent species, since square-mile forest is essentially all edge. And while the majority of forest fires are caused by nature (lightning), most large forest fires, those which cause the most damage, are caused by logging operations.

The level of SPI's arguments are also illustrated by its invocation of John Muir's love of the forest as a reason to cut them down:

"In the mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, John Muir described the forests he found in 1894 as having, "the inviting openness of the Sierra woods as one of their most distinguishing characteristics. The trees of all species stand more or less in groves, or in small irregular groups ...'"

SPI equates its desire to clearcut public lands with science, and accuses others of having a political agenda, while claiming that a ban on clearcutting would destroy the forests of California.

"[The Forest Biodiversity and Clearcutting bill] represents nothing less than the total elimination of forestry on federal lands. It eliminates the scientific approach to resource management and replaces it with a political agenda. If passed, H.R. 1164 would result in the destruction of our forests in California as fires, insects and disease ravage the federal forest lands and threaten adjacent non-federal lands."

 

Sustainable Forestry: Changing Public Perceptions

SPI's willingness to promote its own political agenda is apparent in its reliance on public relations. In a 1991 lecture at the University of California, SPI vice president Dan Tomascheski invoked SPI's use of "rigorous science" while emphasizing the need to reeducate the public, which is "uninformed and not generally favorable" and "driven by their feelings." While Tomascheski admitted that he was "willing to grant, to major elements of the environmental community, some legitimacy in terms of their viewpoint and goals," he also portrayed environmentalism as "a pseudo-scientific vision that left people and human needs out of its prescriptions" and as "providing a spiritual value system [environmentalists] were missing." He added that "environmentalism was also big business." He sees a need for a "shift in the public perception of private land forestry," and SPI's strategy is to "help create the public perception that forestry practices as conducted in the State were sensitive to other resources values" SPI will do this by being "a credible participant at the legislative, policy and regulatory level."

Indeed: in 1997, SPI spent $120,000 on lobbying in Washington DC alone.

As part of its ongoing work with "the key players in various groups who may be interested in solutions and not just in adhering to an ideology," SPI has initiated negotiations with environmental and community organizations, notably the Sierra Accord and the Quincy Library Group. While SPI's public pronouncements usually emphasize compromise and reconciliation, its executives have also stated they've "had some success here as the more radical elements castigate the middle of the road groups about 'selling out' in supporting the Accord and subsequent legislation" -- even though the "radical elements" opposing the legislation ended up including the Sierra Club.

 

The Sierra Accord

In March 1991, the Sierra Club and SPI reached an agreement to limit clearcutting on private timberland, hoping to avoid a repeat of the 1990 legislative fight between Propositions 130 ("Forests Forever") and Proposition 138 (the timber industry's alternative). After a $17-million campaign, both ballot measures had been rejected by the voters. The Sierra Club's Gail Lucas, who led negotiations for the environmental organizations, claimed that the new Sierra Accord ''provides the basis for historic legislation to settle the timber conflict that's been raging in California.'' SPI chairman Red Emmerson said the Accord "was designed to end the acrimony over forest practices that resulted in a costly initiative fight last year," claiming that "my company and most others can't tolerate those extreme measures." The Accord was endorsed by the National Audubon Society, the Wilderness Society and California Trout, and several legislative packages were introduced to put the Accord's provisions into law, and in the words of one lawmaker, to "resist those who would prefer more radical solutions." But the Accord was rejected by other environmental groups, such as Forests Forever, and by other timber corporations, such as Louisiana-Pacific, Georgia-Pacific, and the Timber Association of California, which submitted its own plan for legislation, saying the Sierra Accord only represented the views of Sierra Pacific.

In October 1991, Governor Wilson vetoed the ''Sierra Accord'' legislative compromise, saying it could lead to ''economic hardship on companies, their employees and local governments,'' since Plumas, Lassen, and Sierra Counties were dependent on timber revenues for more than half their budgets. Newspapers described the disagreement:

"Backers of the package criticized Wilson for selling out to logging companies who opposed the compromise... The plan vetoed by Wilson would have allowed clear cutting of up to 20 acres. Wilson had sought clear cuts of up to 40 acres. The legislative compromise allowed cuts of up to 15 percent every 20 years. Wilson wanted cuts of up to 27 percent. Over months of changes, negotiations and attacks by timber companies on the North Coast --such as Pacific Lumber and Louisiana-Pacific -- the plan was watered down so much that the Sierra Club switched its position and finally opposed the plan. Environmentalists said Wilson's alternative contains so many loopholes that it is worse than current law."

The Sierra Accord failed to be passed into law, but SPI soon initiated a new round of negotiations at the Quincy Library -- though the provisions had to be passed into law via a controversial legislative rider.

 

The Quincy Library Group

SPI forester Tom Nelson helped start the "Quincy Library Group" (QLG) coalition of environmentalists, timber industry representatives, and local elected officials in Northern California. Since 1992 the QLG has sought to reach agreement on national forest management issues -- including the level of timber cutting. Early on in the process, the QLG sought to give Sierra Pacific (already the largest purchaser of public timber in California), Collins Pine, and Big Valley Lumber exclusive access to public timber in the Lassen and Plumas national forests and the Sierraville district of the Tahoe National Forest, under a rarely exercised 50-year-old "sustained-yield units" law designed to stabilize timber communities. Independent companies objected to the proposed monopoly arrangement. "It's going to hurt companies like ours that are already strapped for ways to find logs," said Gerry Bendix, vice president of Hi-Ridge Lumber Co. in Yreka. In fact, five years later, Hi-Ridge went out of business.

The Quincy Library Group Forest Recovery and Economic Stability Act, first introduced in March 1997, finally passed Congress as one of the many riders to the Omnibus Appropriations bill in October 1998.

Quincy plan proponents, including Senator Dianne Feinstein, claim that the legislation was the result of "local consensus decision making" and that it will "reduce the threat of forest fires, provide for sustainable harvest of forest resources, and protect environmentally sensitive lands. This legislation explicitly requires the Quincy Library Group pilot project to comply with all environmental laws. For these reasons, it is strongly supported by local environmentalists, labor unions, elected officials, the timber industry, and 27 California counties."

Others stated "that the real motive of the timber barons and their operatives was not 'common ground' but rather splitting local forest activists from their regional and national allies in order to stem the rising tide of forest protection and return to the good old days of dominance by Big Timber... The California environmental community - grassroots, regional and national organizations... offered to support the QLG program through strong language and funding in the 1998 Forest Service Appropriations legislation [but] QLG rejected that proposal... [revealing] that there was another, hidden agenda. In the hands of the anti-environmental Republican Congress, the QLG has become the model for returning western public lands to Industry control in the guise of 'community consensus'... [But] members of the QLG den[ied] meaningful involvement by national environmental groups [and] failed to include or involve critical local stakeholders... [such as] the Pit River Tribe, whose unceded ancestral lands comprise a good part of the Lassen National Forest."

The American Lands Alliance claimed that a coalition of 140 local and national conservation organizations opposed the legislation primarily because it would increase logging dramatically on the Lassen, Plumas and Tahoe National Forests in the Sierra Nevada (up to 187 percent greater than what the Forest Service planned and budgeted for FY 1998), and that it would cost federal taxpayers $70 million.

For an editorial on the Quincy Group by Roy Keene go to http://www.publicforestry.org/WritingsArchive/OpEds/QuincyConspiracy.html

 

Headwaters

In September 1996, Charles Hurwitz, the head of Maxxam Inc., which controls Pacific Lumber, reached an agreement with state and federal officials on the $480 million plan to protect about 7,500 acres of Headwaters Forest of ancient redwoods, 300 miles north of San Francisco. The agreement calls for Pacific Lumber to turn over about 3,000 acres of Headwaters land plus 1,200 acres of a surrounding buffer zone to the government. In return, Hurwitz would get various state and federal properties, including Humboldt County acreage, petroleum deposits in Kern County, surplus property at San Francisco's Transbay Terminal complex, 1,100 acres around a state prison in Chino, and more than 9,000 acres of the Latour State Forest in Shasta County.

The Elk River Timber Co. of Arcata owns 9,600 acres adjacent to the Headwaters Forest, and SPI chairman Red Emmerson is Elk River Timber's main shareholder. In December 1996, the U.S. Forest Service offered to trade 17,000 acres of Tahoe, Plumas, Eldorado, and Stanislaus National Forests in the Sierra Nevada for land owned by Elk River Timber. Emmerson could choose up to 10,000 acres of public land in exchange for his 9,600 acres of redwoods. If the swap is accepted, only 1,800 acres of these redwoods would then be included a $450 million package of state and federal assets. The remaining 7600 acres are to be traded for the 3,000-acre Headwaters Forest and a habitat conservation plan covering 200,000 acres. Alternatively, the federal government could arrange a transfer directly to PALCO, funded by the Land and Water Conservation Fund with approximately $80 million of the Headwaters money included in the 1997 interior appropriation dedicated to Emmerson's Elk River timber lands.

Dave Walsh of Ancient Forest International says that

"Elk River Timber has manipulated their role in the Headwaters transaction by first threatening to cut and then clearcutting right up to and adjacent to some of the most pristine areas of the Headwaters Forest, in an area they knew would soon be purchased by the public, irrevocably damaging future public resources for which they will still get paid. On December 31, 1997 they again submitted a Timber Harvest Plan for 700 acres right in the middle of the area slated for public acquisition. The California Department Of Forestry approved the plan two days before the California legislature appropriated $230 million for the acquisition of this parcel and, if the deal does not close on time, Emmerson is threatening to log important habitat central to the future reserve."

 

SPI and the Headwaters Deal

by Dave Walsh, Ancient Forest International, Redway, California:

"Red Emmerson is the dominant shareholder in Elk River Timber Company. The 9,600 acres of Elk River Timber Company lands on the South Fork of the Elk River lie directly North of the Headwaters Grove proper and the 80 year old second growth forest contiguous with the grove is some of the oldest in Humboldt County. These forests are the only forests adjacent to the Headwaters Grove and are the only viable buffer to the Headwaters Forest Reserve.

"In 1993 ERT filed a Timber Harvest Plan with the California Department of Forestry THP 1-93-096 HUM in an attempt to clear-cut 155 acres along 1.5 miles of the northern boarder of Headwaters Grove. California Fish and Game did nothing to address the significant wildlife values in the plan area. Then Congressman Dan Hamburg, EPIC and representatives from the Sierra Club along with Red himself, the forester for ERT and Red's partners in ERT, negotiated a voluntary moratorium on operations on 096 until the Hamburg's Bill could move through congress. This agreement called for a one-year moratorium and a phased in cutting schedule if the bill did not pass. The bill was passed in the House of Representatives but was never voted on in the Senate.

"Because of restrictions on cutting within 1/4 mile from Marbled Murrelet habitat during nesting season, operations began in September 1995. There was much direct action and active communication was sought with the company to no avail. At this time, after the Hamburg Bill had raised the level of debate, Federal regulators were well aware of the values going down on the plan and did nothing to abate the impacts of a clear-cut taking place in the most pristine part of the grove just north of the old growth area. Throughout 1996, the Clinton administration announced they were negotiating the protection of Headwaters. They were again informed of the value of ERT lands contiguous with the Grove and the environmental community was assured that they were also negotiating with Emmerson. Operations on 096 commenced again on September 15th 1996 and the chainsaws kept rolling until the Headwaters deal was signed. At the same time, ERT was cutting heavily on a 395-acre plan (1-95-059 HUM) in the same watershed, and even though all of their properties were to be acquired in the deal they continued to operate and eventually completed this plan.

"The South Fork of the Elk River is one of the 5 best Coho salmon spawning streams in California. During the winter of 1997-98 a huge landslide of over 1,000,000 cubic feet of material occurred on 059 and directly impacted the Salmon spawning reaches of the stream. No agency action was forthcoming although the slide occurred in the middle of one of the recently clearcut blocks. Several other landslides impacting the stream have occurred on this plan yet the agencies have turned a blind eye and are now reviewing a new THP that would basically result in total deforestation of the South Fork watershed and all of the existing buffer to the Headwaters Grove.

"On December 31st 1997, ERT submitted a THP for 705 acres with 107 stream crossings inside of the funded Headwaters Forest Reserve boundaries. The timetable for the submittal of this plan is particularly telling. The company is attempting to push approval through prior to the opening of public comment on the Federal EIS. Though this plan is literally central to the future reserve, the public has not yet seen the EIS for the establishment of the reserve let alone the PL HCP. The public comment period has now expired and the THP awaits approval or denial by CDF. Since operating this plan would have major impacts on both economic and environmental resources and, if operated would 'preclude alternatives' under the EIS, it is likely to be litigated. There are some 100 comment letters in the record, some from elected officials. No where in the plan was the acreage identified as central to the Headwaters Reserve.

"This current THP identifies Emmerson's callous disregard for public resources (intact forestland, public access, fish and wildlife) and exemplifies cut and run. There is precedent for this kind of action. During the Redwood National Park creation, Simpson Timber and Louisiana Pacific held twenty four-hour shifts under floodlights logging out lands the public would own the next day.

"Acquisition of the Emmerson/ERT land in the South Fork of the Elk is an 'imminently funded' action. The way the deal is currently set up, the 705 acres in the middle of the acquisition area are to be conveyed to Maxxam. 7,600 acres in all will be transferred from ERT to Maxxam/PL, increasing their acreage after the deal by more than 1,000 acres.

"As it stands now there is no public information available regarding the status of an agreement between the Government and Red Emmerson. There is no signed agreement and, though it is some of the most important land in the transaction, approved THP's in the area could be cut at anytime."

 

Habitat Conservation Plans

SPI has drawn up a multi-species HCP/ITP and Agreement, including proposed land exchanges. Species: Northern Spotted Owl and multiple others. The proposed is being negotiated privately with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

SPI-influenced Timber Harvest Plans

The Citizens for Better Forestry objections to SPI's Granite Timber Harvest Plan were noted above. But SPI has been instrumental in changing the THP process itself.

"On January 10, the Board of Forestry passed a "checklist THP" package originally drafted by Sierra Pacific Industries. A generic checklist THP is only 2 pages and 24 checkboxes, and allows the timber industry to avoid cumulative impacts analysis. Since the forester would be required to disclose much less information than is required by law to evaluate a THP, the burden of obtaining sufficient information falls on an already overworked CDF, and on concerned citizens. This increases an already disproportionate burden, particularly since plan submitters continue to not pay for CDF's plan review, inspection and enforcement. Since 1992, the cost of THP review, inspection and enforcement has been subsidized by the cutting of redwoods on public lands, particularly in Jackson State Forest. Opposition to this package was widespread. EPIC submitted a detailed critique. CDF feared increased workload due to the lack of substantial information and confusion as to who would perform cumulative effects analysis. Fish & Game protested the lack of information needed to analyze habitat loss. Water Quality opposed it because it allows approval of plans violating state and federal water quality standards. The State Board of Equalization opposed it because taxes due from timber harvest cannot be determined. EPIC is devising a strategy to address this travesty."


Legal Actions Involving SPI

Arcata Forest Products Co., Eel River Sawmills, J 7 D Timber, Harwood Investment co., Sierra Pacific Industries, and Reservation Ranch, v. United States, 915 F.2d 1584; 1990 U.S. App. Lexis 16155, Sept. 13, 1990. Affirmed.

California State Board of Equalization, Appeal of Sierra Pacific Industries, 94-SBE-002 (1/5/94). Tax case.

Environment Now!, Tulare County Audubon Society, Plumas Forest Project, Forest Alert, v. Mike Espy, Secretary of Agriculture, Jack Ward Thomas, Chief, United States Forest Service, et al. 877 F. Supp. 1397, U.S. Dist. Ct. E. CA, Aug. 22, 1994. Sierra Pacific Industries, Michigan-California Lumber Company, and Sierra Forest Products were defendant-intervenors. Plaintiffs claimed that the Forest Service failed to consider new scientific information related to six timber sales, failed to maintain or enhance wildlife diversity in the national forests, and failed to meaningfully monitor [the spotted owl,] an indicator species, in connection with the timber sales, and breached a settlement agreement, in which the Forest Service agreed to prepare an environmental document for the timber sales at issue. The claims of Plaintiffs were dismissed.

Georgia Pacific Corporation, v. County Of Mendocino. International Paper Company, v. County of Siskiyou. Diamond International Corp., v. County Of Tehama, 357 F. Supp. 380; 1973 U.S. Dist. Lexis 14058; 3 ELR 20715, April 12, 1973. Plaintiffs lost their challenge regarding the taxability of their timberland properties. Court denied Sierra Pacific Industries and Western Forest Industries Association ex parte petition to appear as amicus curiae.

Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus) Marmoratus), et al. v. Bruce Babbitt, in his official capacity as Secretary of the Interior, et al., 918 F. Supp. 318, W. Dist. Washington; Feb. 29, 1996. Sierra Pacific Industries and other corporations were intervenor-defendants. Plaintiffs claimed the federal government had failed to comply with its duty to designate critical habitat for the threatened marbled murrelet; in 1993 and 1995, the court ordered the government to do so; the government claimed a subsequent legislative rider prevented it from designating habitat by the mandated deadline; the court denied the government's claims but extended the deadline.

Sierra Pacific Industries v. Block, 643 F. Supp. 1256; 1986 U.S. Dist. Lexis 21688, August 8, 1986.

Sierra Pacific Industries, Eel River Sawmills, Erickson Lumber Co., Hi-Ridge Lumber Co., P & M Cedar Products, Pine Mountain Lumber Co., George A. Schmidbauer and Mary M. Schmidbauer, Schmidbauer Lumber, Inc., v. John Block, Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture; R. Max Peterson, Chief of the United States Forest Service; Zane G. Smith, Jr., Regional Forester for Region 5 of the United States Forest Service, 643 F. Supp. 1256; 1986 U.S. Dist. Lexis 21688, August 8, 1986. Regarding buy-out of timber sale contracts under the Federal Timber Contract Payment Modification Act. See also SPI v. Lyng.

Sierra Pacific Industries v. Joseph H. Carter, 104 Cal.App.3d 579, 163 Cal.Rptr. 764, 766 (April 15, 1980). SPI purchased timberlands and six other pieces of real property, including a ten-acre parcel in Willow Creek on which five duplexes and two single family units are located. Real estate broker Carter sold the property to his daughter and son-in-law, and retained a $ 5,000 commission without informing SPI of his relationship to the buyers. Sierra Pacific instituted a fraud action against Carter. Appeals court found that Carter was liable to Sierra Pacific for a minimum of $ 5,000 and that the jury's verdict to the contrary was in error, and ordered a new trial to determine the extent of plaintiff's damages.. The case has been cited regarding the legality of false or misleading statements, or deliberately concealed them, in a confidential relationship.

Sierra Pacific Industries v. Eel River Sawmills Inc., NDCalif., 86-2708, 1-25. Affirmed in part, reversed in part and remanded. In action under Federal Timber Contract Payment Modification Act, court found factual record insufficiently developed to determine whether secretary's argument was factually supported, and, if so, whether it would affect equities of case. (National Law Journal, June 19, 1989, p. 47).

Sierra Pacific Industries et al v. Richard Lyng, Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture; R. Max Peterson, Chief of the United States Forest Service; James F. Torrence, Regional Forester for Region 6 of the United States Forest Service, 866 F.2d 1099, 1112 (9th Cir. January 25, 1989). Regarding buy-out of timber sale contracts under the Federal Timber Contract Payment Modification Act; continued the California litigation, Sierra Pacific Indus. v. Block, 643 F. Supp. 1256 (N.D.Cal. 1986).

Sierra Pacific Industries v. The United States, 703 F.2d 585; 1982 U.S. App. Lexis 12622 (December 23, 1982).

Sierra Pacific Industries, v. Workers' Compensation Appeals Board and Elvis Hulsey, 67 Cal. App. 3d 413; 1977 Cal. App. Lexis 1235; 136 Cal. Rptr. 649; 42 Cal. Comp. Cas 129, February 22, 1977. Regarding 10 percent penalty for unreasonably delaying payment of a $975 attorney fee out of an award of $9,765 in disability payments for injured employee.

State Of California, V. Albert Campbell, Charles Tackman, Robert Tiberiis, Vic Inc., Clay McGowan; Middletown Moulding Co., Sierra Pacific Industries, Fay McGowan; Gerald Richter; Linda Richter; Tupack Verpackungen Gesellschaft, and Chico City v. Western Resources, Inc. 138 F.3d 784; 1998 U.S. App. Lexis 4043; 46 ERC (BNA) 1371; 98 Cal. Daily Op. Service 1676; 98 Daily Journal DAR 2329; 28 ELR 21024, March 9, 1998. Regarding liability for clean-up of Victor Industries, a manufacturing plant where for almost two decades workers disposed of hazardous chemicals by dumping them on the ground.

Trinity County District Attorney David Cross v. SPI. Civil suit against SPI for polluting water with the herbicide hexazinone (Pronone).

Umphlett Lumber Company, Calhoun W. Umphlett And Virginia Umphlett, Vs. Trident Systems, Inc. and Sierra Pacific Industries. US District Court, South Carolina Charleston Division, 878 F. Supp. 844; 1995 U.S. Dist. Lexis 3197; 26 U.C.C.R. Serv. 2d (Callaghan) 759, February 28, 1995. A video and computer scanning system for more efficient sawmilling was sold to Umphlett Lumber by Trident Systems; Sierra Pacific had designed certain software that was incorporated into the system. Umphlett alleged that although the optimizer was supposed to increase lumber production at the sawmill, once the system was in place the lumber yield apparently decreased because the optimizer system was defective, and that plaintiff went out of business as a result of the optimizer's failure to perform adequately. Motion for partial summary judgment was granted.

United States of America, Plaintiff, v. Humboldt Fir, Inc., 426 F. Supp. 292; 1977 U.S. Dist. Lexis 17916; 21 U.C.C. Rep. Serv. (Callaghan) 736; 12 Collier Bankr. Cas. (MB) 533, Jan. 13, 1977. Hoopa Indian to timber sale contract with Humboldt Fir awarded to SPI after Humboldt went bankrupt; court found Humboldt still owed money to Hoopa.

Wilderness Society, Sierra Club, Pacific Coast Federation of Fishermen's Associations, and California Trout, Plaintiffs, v. Robert R. Tyrrel, Forest Supervisor of the United States Forest Service for the Shasta-Trinity National Forests; and Paul F. Barker, Regional Forester of the United States Forest Service for Region Five, Defendants; Sierra Pacific Industries, Intervenor No. CIV. S-88-1322 LKK, United States District Court for the Eastern District of California, 701 F. Supp. 1473; 1988 U.S. Dist. Lexis 14651; 19 ELR 20557, December 12, 1988.

Wilderness Society et al; Sierra Pacific Industries, Intervenor-Appellant, v. Robert Tyrrel et al. 918 F.2d 813; 1990 U.S. App. Lexis 19407; 21 ELR 20157, November 6, 1990. Plaintiffs moved to permanently enjoin implementation of the South Fork Fire Recovery Sale Project near the South Fork of the Trinity River, a river protected under the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, as a violation of that Act. The court held that although the Forest Service is obligated to conduct itself in a manner that respects the goals of the Act and preserves the values for which the area received protected status, neither the Act nor the Forest Service's own regulations require that it prepare a management plan for the South Fork, and reversed and remanded the case.

Wilderness Society et al; Sierra Pacific Industries, Plaintiff-Intervenor, v. Robert R. Tyrrel et al. 53 F.3d 341; 1995 U.S. App. Lexis 22718. April 20, 1995, filed. Reported in Full-Text Format at: 1995 U.S. App. Lexis 9165. Opinion: Appeal denied; affirmed.

 

Bibliography

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Barrett, William P. This Land Is Their Land. Worth, Feb. 1997.

Bowman, Chris. Locals-Only Log Milling Restriction Sought. Sacramento Bee, March 3, 1994, p. A1. (Quincy Library Group seeks to grant exclusive access to Lassen, Plumas, and Tahoe national forest timber to Sierra Pacific, Collins Pine, and Big Valley Lumber).

Common Cause. Carrying a Big Stick: How Big Timber Triumphs in Washington. Washington, DC, 1997.

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Draffan, George. Taking Back Our Land: a History. Transitions, Dec. 1998. (A detailed history of how 40 million acres of the railroad land grants were reclaimed by the federal government).

Ellis, David Maldwyn. 1946. The Forfeiture of Railroad Land Grants, 1867-1894. Mississippi Valley Historical Review, June 1946, 33(1): 27-60.

Emmerson, Red. Editorial: Wilson Has Best Chance For Timber Wars Cease-Fire. San Francisco Chronicle, Sept. 27, 1991, p. A27.

Fellmeth, Robert. 1970. The Interstate Commerce Omission: The Public Interest and the ICC. Grossman Publishers.

Gogek. It's Time To Cut a Fair Deal; Timber Compromise Should Become Law. San Diego Union-Tribune, April 6, 1991, p. B3.

Hawn, Carleen. What the Spotted Owl Did for Red Emmerson. Forbes, Oct. 13, 1997.

Jensen, Derrick, George Draffan, and John Osborn. Railroads and Clearcuts: Legacy of Congress's 1864 Northern Pacific Railroad Land Grant. Spokane, WA: The Lands Council and Keokee Company Publishing, 1995.

Jones, Robert Bradley. 1973. One by One: A Documented Narrative Based Upon the History of the Oregon & California Railroad Land Grant in the State of Oregon. [Marylhurst? Ore.]: The Source Magazine, Inc., [1973?].

Levy, Dan. Agreement Reached To Limit Tree Cutting Environmentalists, Timber Firm OK Policy. San Francisco Chronicle, March 20, 1991, p. A3.

Levy, Dan. Timber Firms Reject Deal on Clear-Cuts. San Francisco Chronicle, March 26, 1991, p. A14.

Little, Jane Braxton. Plumas Fire Battled In Tough Conditions. Sacramento Bee, Aug. 12, 1996, p. B2. (Cook Fire northeast of Greenville on timberlands owned by Sierra Pacific Industries).

Lucas, Greg. Governor Vetoes Timber Compromise. San Francisco Chronicle, Oct. 12, 1991, p. A12. (Wilson vetoes ''Sierra Accord'' legislative compromise).

McClatchy News Service. Compromise May End Timber Wars. Orange County Register, April 11, 1991, p. B12.

McCoy, Charles. Maxxam's Hurwitz Nears Pact to Swap Redwood Grove for Thousands of Acres. Wall Street Journal, July 19, 1996, p. A4.

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Paddock, Richard C. Compromise on Logging Of State's Forests Turned Down. Los Angeles Times, March 26, 1991, p. A3.

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Robinson, Gordon. 1994. Ethical Forestry: an Interview with Gordon Robinson, by Cheri Brooks. Inner Voice 6(1): 10-11, Jan-Feb. 1994.

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Sanchez, Jesus. SFSP Agrees to Sell Timber Business for an Undisclosed Price. Los Angeles Times, Oct. 13, 1987, p. 1.

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Vellinga, Mary Lynne. Dole Blames Clinton For Loggers' Plight. Sacramento Bee, July 30, 1996, p. A1.

Wall Street Journal, Sept. 27, 1991, p. B10. Willamette Industries Gets 94.5% Of Shares In Offer For Bohemia. (Willamette asks Justice Department for more data on antitrust implications of Bohemia's accord to sell its California holdings to Sierra Pacific Industries).

Wolcott, Barbara M. War and Peace in the Library. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 1999, 8(1): 1-9.