Bibliography for the Study of Oil and War

compiled by George Draffan

December 2004

Contents of this webpage:




Central Asia - Caspian

Latin America

Middle East 

Activist Resources

Other Endgame webpages:

Oil Industry: Information Resources

Oil, Auto, and Other Energy Subsidies


Oil War news


Clark, John G. The Political Economy of World Energy: A Twentieth Century Perspective.

Cutler, Tom. The Military Demand for Oil. Petroleum Economist, London, 1989.

Davenport, E. H. and Sidney Russell Cooke. The Oil Trusts and Anglo-American Relations. Macmillan, 1924

DeLaisi, Francis. Oil, Its Influence on Politics. Labor Publishing,1923.

Hanighen, Frank. The Secret War. John Day Co, 1934

Klare, Michael. Naming The War: U.S. Seeks Control Of Middle East, Pacific News Service, September 17, 2001.

Klare, Michael. Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict. Metropolitan Books / Henry Holt, 2001.

Klare, Michael. Blood and Oil: The Dangers and Consequences of America's Growing Petroleum Diplomacy. Metropolitan Books / Henry Holt, 2004.

l'Espagnol de la Tramerye, Pierre. The World Struggle For Oil. Alfred Knopf, 1924

Mohr, Anton. The Oil War. Harcourt, Brace, 1926. Hyperion Press, 1976.

McQuaig, Linda. It's The Crude, Dude: War Big Oil, And The Fight For The Planet. Doubleday Canada, 2004.

O'Connor, Harvey. The Empire of Oil. Monthly Review Press, 1955

O'Connor, Harvey. The World Crisis In Oil. Monthly Review Press, 1962

Odell, Peter. Oil and World Power: Background of the Oil Crisis. Viking, 8th ed, 1986. 

Sampson, Anthony. The Seven Sisters. Bantum Books, 1976.

Stoff, Michael B. Oil, War, and American Security. Yale University Press, 1980.

Yergin, Daniel. The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power. Simon & Schuster, 1991.


Oil Industry Analyses

U.S. Department of Energy, Country Analysis Briefs

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Supply Security Page

U.S. Department of Energy, Natural Gas Page

U.S. Department of Energy, Petroleum Page

U.S. Department of Energy, World Oil Transit Chokepoints



Blanche, Bruce and Jean. Oil and regional Stability in the South China Sea. Jane's Intelligence Review, Nov. 1995, p. 511-514.

Branigin, William. China Takes Over Philippine-Calimed Area of Disputed Island Group. Washington Post, Feb 11, 1995.

Glain, Steve. New Arms Race: Fearing China's Plans and a U.S. Departure, Asians Rebuild Forces. Wall Street Journal, Nov. 13, 1997.

Hollway, Nigel. Jolt From the Blue. Far Eastern Economic Review, Aug 3, 1995, p. 22-23.

Kenny, Henry J. The South China Sea: A Dangerous Ground. Naval War College Review, vol. 49, no. 3, Summer 1996, p. 96-108.

Klare, Michael. Oil Wars in the South China Sea, Chapter 5 in Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict. Metropolitan Books, 2001.

Kristof, Nicholas D. China Signs U.S. Oil Deal for Disputed Waters. New York Times, June 18, 1992.

Kristof, Nicholas D. China Builds Its Military Muscle, Making Some Neighbors Nervous. New York Times, Jan. 11, 1993.

Kristof, Nicholas D. Asian Tensions Rise Over Sea's Wealth. New York Times, May 19, 1996.

Kristof, Nicholas D. Would You Fight For These Islands? New York Times, Oct 8, 1996.

Schofield, Clive. Island Disputes in East Asia Escalate. Jane's Intelligence Review, Nov 1996, p. 517-521.

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration.South China Sea Region, January 2000.

U.S. Institute of Peace. The South China Sea Dispute: Prospects for Preventive Diplomacy. Special Report. USIP, August 1996.

Valencia, Mark J. China and the South China Sea Disputes. Adelphi Paper No. 298. Oxford University Press and International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1995.

Valencia, Mark J. Energy and Insecurity in Asia.

Valencia, Mark J. Troubled Waters. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Jan-Feb 1997, p. 49-54.



AMBO to Build Trans-Balkan Oil Pipeline by 2005, Alexanders Gas & Oil Connections, 5(11), 23 June 2000.

Croissant, Michael P. and Bülent Aras, editors, Oil and Geopolitics in the Caspian Sea Region, Westport, CT, Praeger,1999.

Diamond, John, Construction Company Headed by Cheney Gains Extra Millions in Bosnia, Seattle Times, Mar. 24, 1996, p. A1-A2.

Esau, Iain, US to aid Balkan pipeline route study, Lloyd's List, 8 June 1999.

Fisher, Keith. A Meeting of Blood and Oil: The Balkan Factor in Western Energy Security. Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans, Vol.4, No.1, May 2002, pp.75-89.

Foerstel, Lenora, U.S. and NATO Goals in the Balkans, International Action Center,

Mansouri, Gail, Economic Motivation for the U.S./NATO War Against Yugoslavia, International Action Center,

Marsden, Chris, Europe's plan to control the Balkans, June 22, 1999, World Socialist Web Site,

Press Briefing by Senior Administration Official on Caspian Sea Diplomacy and the Baku-Ceyhan Pipeline. FDCH Federal Department and Agency Documents, 17 November 1999.

Robbins, James, Wagons East: International Trade and the FRY-NATO War, Academy for Peace,,

Schwarz, Benjamin and Christopher Layne, The Case Against Intervention in Kosovo, The Nation, April 19, 1999.

TDA Supports U.S. Transportation Exports. Europe: Regional: Southern Balkan Development Initiative, US Trade and Development Agency, May 1998.

Ukraine - Energy: Technical audit of the Ukrainian Oil Pipeline Export System, EuropeAid, Ref: TACIS/UA/SCRE1/No.50; 'INOGATE as a Route to Recovery for NIS', European Report , 20 February 1999.

United States Energy Information Administration, Caspian Sea Oil and Natural Gas Export Routes, June 2000.

Whittell, Giles, Old Soviet states defy Russia with plan to rebuild Silk Road, The Times, 8 June 2001.

Wihbey, Paul Michael, Looking at Balkans Route for Caspian Crude, United Press International, 23 June 1999.

Central Asia - Caspian

Assembly of the Western European Union, Document 1586, The Situation in Central Asia and the Caucasus and European Security, November 19, 1997,

Baev, Pavel K. Challenges and Options in the Caucasus and Central Asia. US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, April 22, 1997.

Beeman, William O. Follow the Oil Trail - Mess in Afghanistan Partly Our Government's Fault, Pacific News Service, August 24, 1998

Blank, Stephen J. U.S. Military Engagement with Transcaucasia and Central Asia. US Army War College, 2000.

Caspian Times.

Coll, Steve. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin, 2004.

Kleveman, Lutz. The New Great Game: The 'War on Terror' is Being Used as an Excuse to Further US Energy Interests in the Caspian. The Guardian, October 20, 2003.

Kleveman, Lutz. The New Great Game: Blood and Oil in Central Asia. Atlantic Books, 2003. His New Great Game website includes maps of existing and planned pipelines.

Talbot, Karen. Chechnya: More Blood for Oil. CovertAction Quarterly, Spring-Summer 2000 # 69.

Talbot, Karen and Ellen Ray. Roots of Chechnya Wars: And Russia’s Sovereignty. CovertAction Quarterly, Spring-Summer 2000 # 69.

Forsythe, Rosemary. The Politics of Oil in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Adelphi Paper No. 300. Oxford University Press and International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1996.

Hitchens, Christopher, When It Comes to the Great Game of Influence, Bill Clinton Knows How to Play by the Rules, Salon, Sept 29, 1997,

Holloboff, Elaine. Russia and Oil Politics in the Caspian. Jane's Intelligence Review, Feb 1996, p. 80-84.

Kazemzadeh, Firuz. The Struggle for Transcaucasia, 1917-1921. Philosophical Library, 1951.

Klare, Michael. Energy Conflict in the Caspian Sea Basin, Chapter 4 in Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict. Metropolitan Books, 2001.

Mikoyan, Sergo A. Russia, the U.S., and Regional Conflict in Eurasia. Survival, vol. 40, no. 3, Autumn 1998, p. 112-126.

Morgan, Dan and David B. Ottaway. Drilling for Influence in Russia's Back Yard. Washington Post, Sept 22, 1997.

Morgan, Dan and David B. Ottaway. Azerbaijan's Riches Alter the Chessboard. Washington Post, October 4, 1998.

Morgan, Dan and David B. Ottaway. Gas Pipeline Bounces Between Agendas. Washington Post, October 5, 1998.

Ottaway, David and Dan Morgan. Kazakh Field Stirs U.S.-Russian Rivalry. Washington Post, October 6, 1998.

Ottaway, David and Dan Morgan. Former Top U.S. Aides Seek Caspian Gusher, Washington Post, July 6, 1997.

Parrott, Stuart. Pipeline Superhighway Replaces The Silk Road, London, Nov 19 1997.

Petroleum Economist, May 12, 1999, p. 27.

Project Underground, Kings Of The Caspian, Drillbits and Tailings, Oct 7, 1999,

Rashid, Ahmed. Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. Yale University Press. (book review by Barbara Belejack at

Saffron, Inga, Black gold, Once Red, Fuels an Oil Rush, Knight-Ridder, July 20, 1997.

Sanger, David E., Oilfields in Mind, White House Woos Turkmenistan's Chief, New York Times, April 24, 1998, p. A6.

Schurmann, Franz, Conflict Building Up in Oil-Rich Caspian, NCM Online, September 6, 2001,

Smith, Sam, The Caspian Connection, The Progressive Review, July 9, 1999.

U.S. Department of State. Caspian Regin Energy Development Report, Report to the U.S. House International Relations Committee Pursuant to H.R. 3610, April 15, 1997.

U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on International Economic Policy, Export andf trade Promotion. U.S. Economic and Strategic Interests in the Caspian Sea Region: Policies and Implications. Hearing, 105th Congress, 1st session, October 23, 1997. U.S. GPO, 1998.

Viviano, Frank, Black Gold, Iron Rule, San Francisco Chronicle, Aug 13, 1998.

Viviano, Frank, Caspian Ring of Fire: Raging War Zones Surround Planned Network of Oil Export Pipelines, San Francisco Chronicle, August 11, 1998, p. A1.

Wihbey, Paul Michael, Looking at Balkans Route for Caspian Crude, United Press Intl, June 23, 1999.

Williams, Daniel. Oil-Soaked Azeris Find Affluence Elusive. Washington Post, , Sept 7, 1998; p. A15.


Latin America

Meyer, Lorenzo. Mexico and the United States in the Oil Controversy: 1917-1942. University of Texas Press, 2nd ed. 1977.

Philip, George. Oil and Politics in Latin America: Nationalist Movements and State Companies. Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Middle East

Beeman, William O. Why a Military Response Won't Work - Historic Roots of Mideast Grievances, Pacific News Service, September 19, 2001

Chatterjee, Pratap. Iraq, Inc.: A Profitable Occupation. Seven Stories Press, 2004.

Cordesman, Anthony. The Gulf and the West: Strategic Relations and Military Realities. Westview Press, 1988.

Cordesman, Anthony. U.S. Forces in the Middle East: Resources and Capabilities. Westview Press, 1997.

Cordesman, Anthony amd Abraham R. Wagner. The Lessons of Modern War: Volume II, The Iran-Iraq War. Westview Press, 1990.

Goralski, Robert and Russell Freeburg. Oil & War: How the Deadly Struggle for Fuel in WWII Meant Victory or Defeat. William Morrow, 1987.

Klare, Michael. Oil Conflict in the Persian Gulf, Chapter 3 in Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict. Metropolitan Books, 2001.

Lieber, Robert J. Oil and the Middle East War: Europe in the Energy Crisis. Harvard Center for International Affairs, 1976.

Louis, William Roger. The British Empire in the Middle East 1945-1951: Arab Nationalism, the United States, and Postwar Imperialism. Clarendon Press, 1985. 

McNaugher, Thomas. Arms and Oil: US Military Strategy and the Persian Gulf. Brookings Institution, 1985.

Mejcher, Helmut. Imperial Quest for Oil: Iraq, 1910-1928. Ithaca Press, 1976.

Sick, Gary and Lawrence Potter, editors. The Persian Gulf at the Millenium. St. Martin's Press, 1997.

Vallette, Jim, et al. Crude Vision: How Oil Interests Obscured US Government Focus On Chemical Weapons Use by Saddam Hussein. Sustainable Energy and Economy Network, 2nd edition, August 2003.

Activist Resources

click here to see Endgame's Oil Industry: Information Resources

Project Underground's Community Pipeline (links to activist groups and resources)

Amazon Watch

Amnesty International

Global Witness

Oil Watch resistance network that opposes the activities of oil companies in tropical countries.

Project Underground supporting the human rights of communities resisting mining and oil exploitation.



Kretzmann, Steve and Shannon Wright. Drilling to the Ends of the Earth: The Ecological, Social, and Climate Imperative for Ending Petroleum Exploration. Rainforest Action Network / Project Underground, September 1998.

Resistance Bulletin from Oil Watch

Tegentai Bulletin from Oil Watch


Project Underground's Dinosaurs of the Twentieth Century

1. Collected info on Shell
2. British Petroleum: Police Terror
3. Enron: The Global Gospel of Gas
4. Unocal: Betraying Burma
5. Occidental: Supporting Suicide




The White Man's Burden

By Rudyard Kipling

McClure's Magazine, February1899


Take up the White Man's burden--

Send forth the best ye breed--

Go, bind your sons to exile

To serve your captives' need;

To wait, in heavy harness,

On fluttered folk and wild--

Your new-caught sullen peoples,

Half devil and half child.


Take up the White Man's burden--

In patience to abide,

To veil the threat of terror

And check the show of pride;

By open speech and simple,

An hundred times made plain,

To seek another's profit

And work another's gain.


Take up the White Man's burden--

The savage wars of peace--

Fill full the mouth of Famine,

And bid the sickness cease;

And when your goal is nearest

(The end for others sought)

Watch sloth and heathen folly

Bring all your hope to nought.


Take up the White Man's burden--

No iron rule of kings,

But toil of serf and sweeper--

The tale of common things.

The ports ye shall not enter,

The roads ye shall not tread,

Go, make them with your living

And mark them with your dead.


Take up the White Man's burden,

And reap his old reward--

The blame of those ye better

The hate of those ye guard--

The cry of hosts ye humour

(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:--

"Why brought ye us from bondage,

Our loved Egyptian night?"


Take up the White Man's burden--

Ye dare not stoop to less--

Nor call too loud on Freedom

To cloak your weariness.

By all ye will or whisper,

By all ye leave or do,

The silent sullen peoples

Shall weigh your God and you.


Take up the White Man's burden!

Have done with childish days--

The lightly-proffered laurel,

The easy ungrudged praise:

Comes now, to search your manhood

Through all the thankless years,

Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom,

The judgment of your peers.