Corporate profiles compiled by George Draffan

Public Information Network, PO Box 95316, Seattle WA 98145-2316 USA

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Wackenhut Communications Center telephone (561) 622-5656.

Wackenhut Corporation is a U.S.-based division of Group 4 Falck A/S which is based in Copenhagen Denmark.

Article on Wackenhut role in prison privatization in Harpers magazine, August 1996.




Singapore-based company with subsidiaries in Malaysia and distributors in Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, Burma, and South Korea (Asian Timber, Sept 1989, p. 11).

Wadkin Robinson Asia is part of the Thomas Robinson Group Plc, which was recently acquired by BM group Plc (Asian Timber, June 1992, p. 10).



WAL-MART click here for detailed profile








In 1984, Fritz Werner began an ammunition-manufacturing joint venture with Heavy Industry Corporation (an arm of SLORC, the military regime conrolling Burma (Burma Issues, Oct. 1993, p. 3).




Fletcher Challenge Canada has announced it will sell half its stock to the public and rename itself Western Forest Industries (Earth First! Journal, Dec. 21, 1993, p. 27).





Alcoa of Australia Ltd.'s chairman, Arvi Parbo, is also chairman of Western Mining ("Miners see profits in foreign markets," AP, Dec. 6, 1992).

WMC has the biggest leases of any foreign mining corporation in the Philippines (southern Mindanao, where it has affected the T'boli and other traditional peoples) (Roger Moody, Minewatch, Multinational Monitor, Oct. 1995, p. 2).

WMC runs Fiji's main gold mine, Vatukoula (Roger Moody, Minewatch, Multinational Monitor, Oct. 1995, p. 2).



Western Pacific Constructors is a joint venture between Fluor Daniel and CMPS to provide engineering and construction services to the primary aluminum industry in Australia and New Zealand. Western's first project is a contract with Tomago to expand an aluminum smelter near Newcastle, Australia, to be completed by 1993 (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991, p. 106).




Westinghouse Building

Gateway Center

Pittsburg PA 15222


Begun in 1886. Formed a patent pool with General Electric in the 1890s. Now includes broadcasting (5 TV and 20 radio stations), electronic systems, financial services, environmental management, and turbines and generators. 1990 sales of $13 billion (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992, p. 566).

The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on Westinghouse in 1991-92 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).

See also The Greenpeace Book of Greenwash (1992).

Used bribes to get a nuclear construction contract in the Philippines in the 1970s. The $2 billion project was never put into operation. Asia Industries is Westinghouse's Philippine distributor; Burns & Roe was also involved in the project (Multinatinal Monitor, Dec. 1991, p. 6-7). "In 1992, Westinghouse reached an out-of-court settlement with the Philippines government on the $2.2 billion lawsuit" (Fairness and Accuracy in Media, Extra!, Dec. 1995, p. 12).

In 1977, Westinghouse was convicted in Canada of conspiring with GE and GTE Sylvania to prevent competition in the light bulb industry. Exclusive supplier of cooler pumps and nuclear fuel to 51 of the 111 reactors in the U.S., 5 of the 7 reactors in Belgium, 6 of the 9 in South Korea, and 6 of the 9 in Spain. Operated six U.S. government-owned uranium production/waste disposal facilities, including Hanford and Savannah River. Received $2.2 billion in military contracts in 1990. Operates in Puerto Rico, Canada, Brazil, Australia, Ireland, Barbados, and Europe. Modernizing Russia'a air traffic control system, and fossil fuel plants in eastern Europe. January 1992 contract with Bulgaria to design and start the first low-level radioactive waste processing plant in eastern Europe, at the Kozloduy plant north of Sofia. Was cited for 1,338 OSHA worker safety violations between 1977 and 1990. Congressional hearings have shown harassment of whistleblowers at its nuclear facilities; in January 1992 Westinghouse itself released an internal survey that showed 20 percent of its Hanford employees feel intimidtaed or reluctant to discuss safety issues. In 1985 Westinghouse employees were found guilty of defrauding the Pentagon. A May 1991 report by the U.S. General Accounting Office also found fraud in military contracts. Pled guilty to bribery charges regarding a power plant in Cairo, Egypt ("Westinghouse Web," by Jim Donohue, Multinational Monitor, March 1992, p. 28-32).

Received a $300 million contract to install a command and control system for the United Arab Emirates' air defense (New York Times, Feb. 16, 1993, p. C7).

Westinghouse Credit has $2 billion in real estate assets ("Westinghouse Web," by Jim Donohue, Multinational Monitor, March 1992, p. 28-32).

The U.S. Export-Import Bank is giving $317 million in loans which guarantee Westinghouse completion of nuclear reactors near Temelin in the Czech Republic.

Westinghouse Northrup Grumman merger (Business Week, Jan. 22, 1996, p. 40).



West Chester PA 19380


Collaborating with the County Cork-based Fehily Timoney & Associates on environmental engineering joint ventures in Ireland, to include air pollution control, industrial wastewater, and other projects. "There is a favorable climate now for multinationals in Ireland," Weston vice president Thomas Tuffy says (Engineering News Record, May 18, 1992, p. 35).




Owns 25 percent of the Kori Kollo gold mine in Bolivia, which uses cyanide leaching. (Battle Mt. Gold owns another 51 percent of the mine).




Represented a coalition of Fortune 500 companies known as

USA*NAFTA to promote the North American Free Trade Agreement (Nancy Snow, SELLING AMERICA'S CULTURE TO THE WORLD, Open Media Pamphlet Series, Seven Stories Press, New York, 1998).



WEYERHAEUSER click here for detailed profile

Weyerhaeuser Way, Federal Way, WA 98477
telephone 206-924-2345 or 800-525-5440

Overseas operations

Weyerhaeuser imports from Brazil, Chile, and Sweden to the ports of Chester, Philadelphia, and Savannah (1996 Directory of United States Importers, p. 1168).

Capricorn Corporation (Philippines) is a Weyerhaeuser subsidiary (Who Owns Whom 1990: Australia & Far East).

In October, 1989, Weyerhaeuser "sold" its Paneling Division to Chesapeake Hardwood Products Inc., a newly-formed affiliate of the Indonesian Kalimanis Group. Weyerhaeuser's Chesapeake, Virginia wall paneling and Hancock, Vermont hardwood plywood plants, whose main raw material is Indonesian plywood, remain under Weyerhaeuser management (according to Asian Timber, Nov. 1989, p. 22; Gerry W. White is PT Kalimanis Plywood Industries' managing director in Indonesia). "Weyerhaeuser will remain a customer and distribute for the new company" (Seattle Times and Post-Intelligencer, Oct. 24, 1989). Weyerhaeuser has been boycotted, along with Georgia-Pacific, for being one of the major importers of tropical wood in the U.S. In letters to the Rainforest Action Network, Weyerhaeuser denies controlling Chesapeake and denies having tropical forest business. See Rainforest Action Network leaflet, Dec. 1989, and World Rainforest Report, Jan-Feb. 1990.

Chesapeake Hardwood Products, 201 Dexter St., PO Box 1188, Chesapeake, VA 23320, 804-543-1601

Kalimanis Plywood Industries, Box 252, Mentang Raya 72, Jakarta, Indonesia

This is also the address for Georgia-Pacific Indonesia (Who Owns Whom 1990: Australia & Far East).

Kennedy Bay Timber (Malaysia) is a Weyerhaeuser subsidiary logging and selling lumber from Sabah (Who Owns Whom 1990: Australia & Far East).

Pacific Hardwoods (Malaysia) is listed as a Weyerhaeuser subsidiary in Who Owns Whom 1990: Australia & Far East, and in 1990-91 U.S. SEC documents filed by the company. Asian Timber (April 1992, p. 8) shows Pacific Hardwoods to be the fourth largest sawntimber exporter (48,023 cubic meters, or about two percent of the 2.23 million exported) and the fifth largest plywood exporter (55,592 cubic meters, or about 8 percent of the total 704,751 exported) from Malaysia in 1991. In 1990, Pacific was the second largest plywood exporter from Malaysia. Pacific Hardwoods is a member of the Timber Exporters' Association of Malaysia and the Malaysian Plywood Manufacturer's Association (Asian Timber, April 1992, p. 8).

Silam Forest Products (Malaysia) is a Weyerhaeuser subsidiary listed in Who Owns Whom 1990: Australia & Far East.

Weyerhaeuser Far East Ltd. (Hong Kong). Also has a Jakarta office at Box 2682, Kartika Plaza Bldg, Jakarta, Indonesia.

P. T. International Timber Corporation of Indonesia (ITCI). In 1971, Weyerhaeuser bought ITCI (Ann Rep 1971, p. 21). By 1971, Weyerhaeuser had rights to two million acres in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines (Ann Rep 1971). In its 1978 annual report, it said "Our operations in Canada, Indonesia, and Malaysia depend solely or substantially upon purchase of government timber."

ITCI held 1.5 million acres containing ten billion board feet of timber in Kalimantan, Borneo. Weyerhaeuser signed a 21-year agreement with the Indonesian military for the concession, obtained by paying $3.5 million in advance to the army, which needed cash after overthrowing the Sukarno regime. The concession called for eventual payment of $65 million to the army. Weyerhaeuser would invest $30 million over ten years, while gross revenues were estimated to worth up to $300 million. Weyerhaeuser planned a sawmill and chip plant at Samarinda, and also exported raw logs. Weyerhaeuser announced its intention to remove tribespeople living in longhouse communities, and to relocate them to company towns with schools, churches, hospitals, etc. Weyerhaeuser vice-president Charles Bingham said the Asian operations were beneficial. "I do not believe that disease, poverty, and illiteracy are inalienable human rights, or that primitive societies should be forced to remain primitive, simply to provide museum pieces for their more affluent world neighbors' entertainment. I feel no apologies are necessary for offering the members of those societies a choice." He admitted there would be changes. "Any major investment brings major changes in the economic arena, and those changes tend to translate gradually into social change... and to that same extent, I am sure we do disrupt primitive societies. I do not think we cheapen their cultural values, or inherent human rights. Nor, do I think we corrupt cultural values. After all, compared to many forms of consumer gadgetry, a two-by-four has little corrupting potential. It is possible, however, that by making visible alternative life-styles, major investments can plant the seed of political or social upheaval. This is a risk the governments are obviously willing to take; the alternatives of starvation, further economic decline, expanding population and endemic diseases and despair are considered even more dangerous" (Robert Wenkham, The Great Pacific Rip-Off: Corporate Rape in the Far East, Chicago: Follett Publishing, 1974, pp. 151-169. For the quotes from Bingham, Wenkham cites an unpublished 1973 paper of Bingham's entitled "Multinational Issues: Some Observations and an Example"). Bingham conveniently ignores the fact that all those dangers are brought about by "major investments."

Weyerhaeuser sold P. T. International Timber in 1981 (Directory of Multinationals, Macmillan, 1989, p. 1417). The Indonesian Network on Tropical Forest Conservation (SKEPHI), in its "Selling Our Common Heritage: Commercialization of Indonesian Forest" (1990, p. 24,30-31) said, "Despite complaining of unstable political and economic decisions on the part of the Indonesian Government, Weyerhaeuser seems to be more committed to maintaining the forestry sector in Indonesia compared to other foreign investors. The answer actually lies in forest plantations. ITCI was looking for a more profitable timber estate plantation for pulp industries rather than concern for Indonesia's forest sustainability. ICY [sic] at present operates one of the timber estate [sic] in East Kalimantan. In fact ITCI's mahogany plantation is suffering from pest infestation. In the U.S., Weyerhaeuser would have to abide by many environmental safeguard rules. It is doubtful whether they applied the same measure in Indonesia during the seventies. Weyerhaeuser plans to log its entire [600-square kilometer, $22 million] concessions by 1990. But by the late seventies, the ITCI concession area was practically flattened by Caterpillar and other heavy American equipment. It had the so-called reforested areas. Those consisted of eucalyptus, pine, and acacia." (SKEPHI, 1990).

Weyerhaeuser in the United States

By its own estimate, Weyerhaeuser has clearcut about four million acres since 1900 (1990 Annual Report, p. A-1).

In the United States, Weyerhaeuser is involved in developing the Snoqualmie Tribe's traditional lands at Snoqualmie Falls, Washington. Plans include 15 acres of office space, ten acres of retail businesses, a golf course, and 2000 residential units. Seattle Seahawks owner and California and Washington developer Ken Behring is also planning residential development on Snoqualmie land. Puget Power already uses the Falls for hydroelectric power, and plants to increase its take, thus decreasing the water flow over the Falls. Contact the Snoqualmie Falls Preservation project at 4759 15th Ave NE, Seattle WA 98105, 206-525-1213, or the Snoqualmie tribe at 18525 Novelty Hill Rd., Redmond WA 98052, 206-885-7464.

Weyerhaeuser in Canada

The Weyerhaeuser Canada subsidiary's $1.4 billion in sales were more than 15 percent of the company's total 1992 sales; Weyerhaeuser Canada employs 4,300 people and holds licenses to cut trees on more than 18.8 million acres. In 1993, George Weyerhaeuser, Jr. was named chief executive of Weyerhaeuser Canada (Stevens, 1993).

Weyerhaeuser's Canadian holdings:

In 1971, Weyerhaeuser had cutting rights to 7.7 million acres of B.C. softwood, and 1.4 million acres of eastern Canadian hardwood (Annual Report 1971). In 1978, it was about the same; 7.9 million acres in B.C. and one million in eastern Canada (Annual Report 1978, p.29).

By 1990, Weyerhaeuser had long-term license arrangements to 13 million acres in Canada (British Columbia, 3.6 million; Saskatchewan, 8.5 million; Alberta, 1.4 million) (Annual Report 1990, p.A-1).

In 1993, Weyerhaeuser had long-term license arrangements to 17.8 million acres in Canada; its timber inventory in Canada was about 190 billion board feet (compared to 104 billion board feet in the United States (according to calculations derived from the company's 1993 Annual Report, p. 5).

Canadian operations and corporations:

In "Innovations and Trees," a booklet it published for its 75th anniversary in 1975, Weyerhaeuser had the following foreign operations were listed:

British Columbia:

- Quadrant Development Ltd.

- Kamloops and Vavenby: lumber and pulp manufacturing.

- Lumby and Merritt: softwood lumber manufacturing.

- Vancouver: environmental resources group.


- Princeville: hardwood veneer mfg.


- Sault Ste. Marie: hardwood lumber and veneer manufacturing.

Weyerhaeuser Canada Ltd.'s operations now include:

Drayton Valley (Alberta), and Kamloops, Lumby, Merritt, Okanogan Falls, Princeton, and Vavenby (British Columbia). Source: DFPI 1992-93.

Weyerhaeuser subsidiaries include:






B.C. Ministry of Environment Information Bulletin No. 1992:ELP82, May 27 1992. (In April 1992, Weyerhaeuser's Merritt, British Columbia operation was charged with violations of B.C.'s Waste Management Act for illegally discharging and transporting wastes; maximum fines under the charges could total $3 million).

Goad, G. Pierre. 1992. Striking workers in Canada close pulp, paper mills. (British Columbia). Wall Street Journal, June 16, 1992 pC10(W).

Kamloops This Week. 1992. WCB tells Weyerhaeuser to check into safety steps. Jan. 19 1992. (After chlorine leaks at Weyerhaeuser pulp mill, Workers Compensation Board wants more communication regarding emergency evacuation procedures; Pulp, Paper and Woodworkers of Canada union says mill should have been shut down and evacuated).

Stevens, John H. 1993. Agent of change: young Weyerhaeuser focuses on job in Canada's timber industry. Seattle Times, Sept. 12, 1993. (George Weyerhaeuser, Jr. is named chief executive of Weyerhaeuser Canada; he has a degree in forestry from Yale (1976), has worked for Weyerhaeuser in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and has been a director of The Nature Conservancy. The Weyerhaeuser Canada subsidiary's $1.4 billion in sales are more than 15 percent of the company's total 1992 sales; employs 4,300 people and holds licenses to cut 18.8 million acres).

Weyerhaeuser. University of Toronto forestry lecture series. [s. l.] Weyerhaeuser Canada Ltd.

Weyerhaeuser in Russia

In 1990 and 1991, Pacific Northwest newspapers began to report that Weyerhaeuser was "eyeing" the forests of Siberia. Weyerhaeuser's director of export log marketing, Gary Drobnack, said the company was "looking into" a joint venture; he said the Soviets were particularly interested in the company's reforestation and management techniques (L. Denne, Puget Sound Business Journal, Sept. 3, 1990). Other news stories emphasized the transfer of Weyerhaeuser tree-farming technology to the regional timber enterprise Dallesprom, in exchange for the export of spruce and fir lumber or logs (J. Erickson, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Nov. 223, 1990, p. C2). In September 1991, a Weyerhaeuser vice president identified several areas of spruce, larch, and white fir that the company might log and export to Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, and China; development of several ports was being considered, including Vanino, which provides access from the Baikal-Amur railroad to Sakhalin island and north to Magadan (Seattle Times, Sept. 18, 1991).

Having negotiated for two years to set up a joint venture to log along the Khabarovsk Krai coast, Weyerhaeuser could gain access to a million hectares of forest, including virgin forest along the Botcha River. The Botcha is habitat to endangered plants and animals, and is inhabited by about 300 Orochi indigenous peoples. Weyerhaeuser has lobbied for the venture, trying to convince local residents and environmentalists of its environmental expertise. The company has given expense-paid tours of its U.S. operations. The Far Eastern Scientific Research Institute for Forest Management was opposed to Weyerhaeuser's plans until it signed a contract with the company. The local Goskompriroda is opposed to logging, and recommends that the Botcha instead be preserved as a zapovednik (nature reserve) or national park (International Working Group on Boreal Forests' Taiga-News, No. 2, July 1992, p. 3).

Weyerhaeuser vice president Scott Marshall claimed that the company would bring efficiency and new reforestation techniques to Siberia; "once our objectives are understood, we get excellent support from the environmental groups," he claimed. He said if its current negotiations in Siberia went through, Weyerhaeuser would sell the wood in Asian markets rather than in the United States (Jane Kay, San Francisco Examiner, and Seattle Post-Intelligencer, February 3, 1992, p. A2).

Weyerhaeuser is mentioned in an editorial on Siberia's forests written by NBC TV news anchor Tom Brokaw's (New York Times; reprinted in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, October 23, 1992, p. A15).

Francesco Martone of Greenpeace International has been following Siberian timber plans by Hyundai and Weyerhaeuser. In January 1993, he posted a draft report on Weyerhaeuser's activities on Econet (gn:fmartone in cdp:env.siberia, Jan. 19, 1993).




Was on the Council on Economic Priorities' 1995 Worst Polluters List, with four times its industry average in toxic chemical releases.




Sells South African coal to EPDC (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991, p. 105).





White Nights Joint Venture was set up in November 1990 to develop oil and gas in the Tagrinsk, West Varyegan, and Roslavi fields in Tyumen province in western Siberia, near the town of Raduzhny. The venture is a collaboration between Phibro Energy (45 percent owner; a subsidiary of Anglo-American's Salomon unit), Anglo-Suisse Ltd., and the Russian government agency Varyeganneftegas. Anglo-Suisse said that Varyeganneftegas planned to divide 20 million acres in western Sibeia into blocks for western companies to develop. White Nights' western partners said they had invested $40 million to the venture, and loaned another $40 million. The Westerners claimed the Russian were bureaucratic and did not undrstand the profit system, and Phibro said it would shut the operation down if Russia's new oil export tax weren't repealed, or Russia's supposed exemption of joint ventures operating before 1992 were not carried out. Pravda claimed the westerners were mistreating Russian employees (they are paid the equivalent of $120 per year, twice the average income in Siberia) and plundering Russia's wealth. Despite the bickering, the head of Anglo-Suisse said if the tax situation could be resolved, his company planned to develop an even larger operation, Golden Mammoth, about 60 miles east of the White Nights development. Golden Mammoth could involve 500 wells and 400 million barrels of oil. Since White Nights hopes to net $1.9 billion over the next 25 years, arrangements are negotiatiable. See the following news accounts:

Wall Street Journal, Oct. 2, 1990, p. C11.

Oil & Gas Journal, Sept. 16, 1991, p. 38-41.

Wall Street Journal, Jan. 29, 1992, p. A1.

Wall Street Journal, Feb. 5, 1992, p. A4.

Oil & Gas Journal, Mar. 23, 1992, p. 130-131.

Oil & Gas Investor, June 1992, p. 32-37.

Wall Street Journal, July 7, 1992, p. A11.

Oil & Gas Journal, Nov. 8, 1993, p. 32.

Wall Street Journal, Dec. 31, 1993, p. 6.




Kampen, Netherlands

Dutch timber and trading company with operations in Germany, Cameroon, Ghana, and Ivory Coast and sales offices in France, USA, and UK.

Chainsaw criminal: Wijma by Forests Monitor, CED & Greenpeace.

Wijma: Logging illegally in Cameroon's rainforest by Forests Monitor & Greenpeace, August 2002.




Empire State Bldg.

New York NY

Small privately held company. In October 1992, Windsor's chairman, Arnold Saltzman, who has served in various U.S. economic and diplomatic posts, was hired by the country of Kyrgyzstan to do its negotiating for contracts to develop its natural resources. "With all their natural resoucres taken together, they (Kyrgyzstan) are the richest per square mile of any country anyplace," Saltzman is quoted as saying (AP, "The Selling of Kyrgyzstan: Where is it? Who wants it?" Seattle Times, Jan. 6, 1993, p. C8).



WMX CORPORATION (Waste Management)

3003 Butterfield Rd.

Oakbrook IL 60521


Formerly called Waste Management Inc. WMX is the No. 1 garbage collection and recycling company. Contract with thousands of cities in 48 US states and 18 other countries including Argentina, Venezuela, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. Its subsidiaries include Chemical Waste Management, Wheelabrator, and Chem-Nuclear Systems. Sales increased from $773 million in 1981 to $6 billion in 1990 (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992).

WMX has been sued, convicted, and fined for numerous environmental, bribery, price fixing, and anti-trust violations. Everybody's mentions 600 EPA citations in the 1980s, $46 million in fines for bribery and illegal waste handling 1980-1988, and 18 grand juries 1983-1988. Yet WMX Chairman Dean Buntrock was elected to the board of directors of National Wildlife Federation. Former NWF president Jay Hair wrote "we feel that Waste Management is conducting its business in a responsible manner" (letter to George Draffan, Feb. 4, 1988). WMX is a member of the National Wildlife Federation's Corporate Conservation Council.

WMX has the largest toxic dump in the U.S., at Emelle, Alabama.

Citizens groups have filed legal papers to revoke WMX's corporate charter; for information contact Thomas Linzey at the Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund, 2244 Lindsay Lot Road, Shippensburg PA 17257, telephone 717-530-0931, e-mail

Bibliography on WMX:

Bailey, Jeff. Waste Disposal Giant Often Under Attack, Seems to Gain from It. Wall Street Journal, May 1991.

Collette, WIll, et al. Waste Management Inc.: A Corporate Profile. Falls Church, VA: Citizens Clearinghouse on Hazardous Waste (CCHW), 1989.

Cray, Charlie. Waste Management, Inc.: AN Encyclopedia of Environmental Crimes & Other Misdeeds. Washington, DC: Greenpeace, 1991.

Crooks, Harold. Giants of Garbage: The Rise of the Global Waste Industry and the Politics of Pollution Control. Toronto: Lorimer & Company, 1993.

Lipset, Brian. Trashing the Future. Multinational Monitor, Sept. 1991, p. 27-31.

Toxic Empire: The WMX Corporation, Hazardous Waste, and Global Strategies for Environmental Justice. Action Paper #2. San Francisco: Political Ecology Group (PEG), 1994. 32 p. Contact the Transnational Resource & Action Center, Box 29344, Presidio Bldg 1016, 2nd floor, Tourney Ave, San Francisco CA 94129, telephone 415-561-6567, fax 415-561-6493, e-mail




"Wong Tuong Kwong (WTK) Group is the oldest of the big five Sarawak timber giants, founded in the 1960s by Datuk Wong Tuong Kwong. It has become a huge conglomerate with 70 subsidiaries operating in several activities such as mineral exploration, insurance etc and has logging concessions in Papua New Guinea as well as Sarawak (450.000 acres). It was through working for WTK that Wong Tuong Kwong's nephew, Tiong Hiew King, learnt about the business and following a split in 1975 left to establish the Rimbunan Hijau group (Asian Wall Street Journal Weekly, 1994). WTK is managed by the two sons of Wong Tuong Kwong; Wong Kie Yik and former Senator Wong Kie Nai. Kie Nai and Kie Yik are prominent financiers of James Wong's Sarawak National Party (SNAP). WTK operations in Sarawak have encountered resistance by local people. When offers of gifts such as casting nets for fishing and money were refused by the Penan of the Magoh-River region and they maintained a road blockade, WTK is said to have employed a Chinese versed in Penan matters. He threatened the people: "If you do not abandon the blockade, you had better watch out at night. I will come and kill your children..." (Manser, 1996, p39). After losing a court case in 1987 concerning blockades on private roads WTK is said to have offered the blockade spokesperson RM30,000 (US$11,900) to persuade his people to accept a profit share of RM2 (US$0.79) per cubic meter of timber to allow the company to continue working. The spokesperson declined. (Manser, 1996)." (Greenpeace, Dec 1, 1998, An Overview of Asian Companies: Malaysia).

"The Malaysian Group WTK owns the Brazilian company Amaplac which has also been exposed by Greenpeace, and is currently under investigation by the Federal Prosecutor in Amazonas State."

Greenpeace Exposes International Timber Criminals In French Port: Activists board ship with Amazon cargo from multinationals Lapeyre and WTK. Greenpeace International Forests Campaign, July 28, 2000,

French Commandos Arrest Greenpeace Activists In Honfleur, France: MV Aquitania abandons port without offloading Amazon criminal timber. Greenpeace International Forests Campaign, July 29, 2000,

Against the Law: the G8 and the Illegal Timber Trade, by Greenpeace International




"Gerhard Wonnemann GmbH was founded in 1948 and is one of the largest operators in Congo (Brazzaville), where it operates in the south of the country as SOCOBOIS." (Forest Monitor, Sold Down the River).



WORLD BANK (International Bank for Reconstruction & Development)

See Barrranca del Cobre, Piparwar, Valco, Sardar Sarovar, Narmada, Three Gorges, Vulcan, etc, and the World Bank entry in the multilateral banks and development agencies section.



WTK Group see Wong Tuong Kwong




One Town Center Rd, Boca Raton FL 33486

W.R. Grace's operations have included Peruvian guano fertilizer, cocoa, cotton mills, sugar plantations, nitrate fertilizer, oil, coal, tin mining, and health care (such as National Medical Care kidney dialysis). Grace has some 190 facilities in 48 states and 49 countries. Grace owns Agracetus (transgenic cotton), Davison Chemical, and Dewy and Almy Chemical, has genetically engineered soybeans and rice, and has manufactured biopesticides (such as Margosan-O) from the Neem tree of India. Grace subsidiary American Breeders Service holds patents for cattle and sheep embryo cloning (see the pamphlet Amazing W.R. Grace: Patents and Monopoly Control on Food, Fibre and Healthcare, by the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Natural Resources Policy, A-60 Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 India).

Environmental offenses (from the pamphlet Amazing W.R. Grace):
* Acton, Massachusetts: contaminated drinking wells with toxic chemicals; is in the U.S. EPA Superfund list.
* Woburn, Massachusetts: In 1982, a lawsuit was filed against W.R. Grace and Beatrice on behalf of families in Woburn, Massachusettss, whose high incidence of childhood leukemia and other cancers was beleived to be caused by illegal dumping of the toxic chemcal trichloroethylene; a decade later the case was settled for $8 million (The Workbook, Winter 1995-1996, p. 165-166, citing Jonathan Harr, A Civil Action, Random House, 1995).
* Wayne, NJ: Burried radioactive waste; Superfund list.
* Virginia: coal mining wastes.
* Curtis Bay, Maryland: more than 200 water pollution permit violations between 1981 and 1994.
* Lake Charles, Louisiana: water pollution violations.
* Waterloo, New York: water pollution violations.
* Columbia, Maryland: radioactive waste.
* Jersey City, New Jersey: hazardous waste.


In the late 1980s, Goodyear relocated "the world's most modern tire plant" from Toronto to Napanee, Ontario using nonunionized workers and government subsidies (Bryan D. Palmer, Goodyear Invades the Backcountry: The Corporate Takeover of a Rural Town, Monthly Review Press, 1994).


"Five children and one adult died of acute lymphocytic leukemia from exposure to chemicals in the drinking water of Woburn, Massachusetts. The Environmental Protection Agency found Grace and a second company responsible for dumping the toxic chemicals that poisoned two of Woburn's wells. Grace paid $8 million to eight families to settle their lawsuits against the company. Grace was indicted by the Department of Justice on two counts of lying to the EPA about the amount of hazardous chemicals it used at its Woburn plant. In 1988, Grace pled guilty to one count and was fined $10,000." (Russell Mokhiber and Robert Weissman, You Can't Eat Enough of It, Focus on the Corporation,, Dec. 12, 1999, citing the book A Civil Action and the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 1999).


"At least 192 people have died of asbestos-related disease from a mine near Libby, Montana that was owned by Grace for nearly 30 years. At least another 375 have been diagnosed with the fatal disease... [and] another 12 to 15 people from Libby are being diagnosed with the diseases -- asbestosis, mesothelioma -- every month... Since 1984, 187 civil actions have been filed against Grace on behalf of Libby's miners and their families. There are 120 cases pending. In the others, Grace has either been found liable and been ordered to pay damages in a jury trial, or it settled out of court, often shortly before the trial was to begin."(Russell Mokhiber and Robert Weissman, You Can't Eat Enough of It, Focus on the Corporation,, Dec. 12, 1999, citing the book A Civil Action and the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 1999).

W.R. Grace Shares Fall After Indictment, By Bob Anez, Associated Press / Washington Times, Feb 8, 2005. Shares of W.R. Grace and Co. sank more than 12 percent Tuesday in the wake of a federal indictment that charged the chemicals and building materials supplier and seven of its executives knew a mine was releasing cancer-causing asbestos into the air and tried to hide the danger from workers and townspeople.
The federal grand jury handing down the indictment Monday said top Grace executives and managers kept secret numerous studies spelling out the risk the asbestos posed to its customers, employees and Libby residents.
Grace shares fell $1.44, or 12.6 percent, to $10.01 in morning trading Tuesday on the New York Stock Exchange. Its shares had traded as high as $15.49 in November.
A newspaper study linked nearly 200 deaths to asbestos from the vermiculite mine in the small town of Libby, about 130 miles northwest of Missoula near the Canadian border. More than 1,200 became ill over the 30 years that Grace operated the mine.
According to the indictment, Grace - knowing the risks - provided vermiculite for a junior high school running track and as a base for an ice rink, and sold or leased some of its contaminated properties for homes and businesses, baseball fields, even city use.
The indictment, unsealed Monday, also accused Grace and Alan Stringer, former manager of the now-closed mine, of trying to obstruct efforts by the Environmental Protection Agency to investigate the extent of the asbestos contamination beginning in 1999, when a study by the Seattle Post-Intelligencer linked the nearly 200 deaths and hundreds of illnesses to the mine.
The newspaper's study was based on interviews with doctors in several states.
The EPA, which has never disputed the findings of the study, has since declared the area a Superfund site and has spent more than $55 million on cleanup so far.
"A human and environmental tragedy has occurred in Libby. This prosecution seeks to hold Grace and some of its executives responsible for the misconduct alleged in this indictment," said Bill Mercer, the U.S. attorney for Montana.
Columbia, Md.-based Grace said in a statement it "categorically denies any criminal wrongdoing."
"We are surprised by the government's methods and disappointed by its determination to bring these allegations," the company said. "And though court rules prohibit us from commenting on the merits of the government's charges, we look forward to setting the record straight in a court of law."
Also named in the indictment were Henry Eschenbach, former health official for a Grace subsidiary; Jack Wolter, a former executive for Grace's construction products division; William McCaig, former general manager of the Libby mine; Robert Bettacchi, a senior vice president of Grace; O. Mario Favorito, chief legal counsel for Grace; and Robert Walsh, former Grace vice president.
The company could face a fine of up to $280 million, twice the amount of after-tax profits the government alleges W.R. Grace made from the mine, according to the Justice Department. Grace filed for bankruptcy protection in April 2001 after it was overwhelmed by asbestos-related lawsuits.
Stringer could be sentenced to as many as 70 years in prison, while Wolter and Bettacchi each face up to 55 years. The other defendants could get five years.
"This wasn't something that happened to us. This was something that was done to us," said Les Skramstad, 68, a former miner who was diagnosed with the chronic lung disease asbestosis nine years ago.
Skramstad, who attended Monday's news conference, said he worked in the mine for 2 1/2 years and believes he brought asbestos fibers home with him. His wife and two children also suffer from asbestosis.
"They should have to pay," Skramstad said of the defendants. "They will never have to pay like we did, because it won't cost them their lives."
Grace bought the mining operation, which once supplied more than 80 percent of the world's vermiculite, in 1963 and shut it down in 1990. According to the indictment, the company knew of lung problems among its employees as early as 1976.
Grace executives also had access to reports or studies warning of the dangers of asbestos vermiculite exposure throughout the late 1970s and early '80s, the indictment alleged. Yet Grace officials told the EPA in 1983 they knew of nothing to indicate their products posed a substantial threat to human health, according to the indictment. (W.R. Grace Shares Fall After Indictment, By Bob Anez, Associated Press / Washington Times, Feb 8, 2005).




Thunder Bay, Ontario



Wye Resources has a half-interest in four diamond concessions in southern Kasal province, Zaire, near the Angolan border; it has received all the necessary exploration, development, and export permits (FW: Financial World, Mar. 30, 1993, p. 110 advertisement for investors).