Corporate profiles compiled by George Draffan

Public Information Network, PO Box 95316, Seattle WA 98145-2316 USA

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Safety-Kleen is a member of the National Wildlife Federation's Corporate Conservation Council.




Has a 270,000-hectare concession for the export of sago palm flour at Manokwari, Irian Jaya, Indonesia (SKEPHI, 1990, Selling Our Common Heritage, p. 24).



SAIC (Science Applications Incorporated)
10260 Campus Point Drive
San Diego CA 92121

Employee-owned research and engineering ranging from biomedical research, criminal justice, homeland security, data mining and warehousing, energy, health care, space, telecommunications, transportation. 38,000 employees, $6 billion in revenue. SAIC directors have included intelligence and military officials such as Melvin Laird, Bobby Ray Inman, Robert Gates, William J. Perry, John Deutch, David Kay, etc.

* Year 2000 joint venture between SAIC and Bechtel (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC) to manage and operate the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste program.
* 2002 Defense Information Systems Agency contract to perform next generation engineering services for federal and DoD agencies worldwide; the 7-year contract could be worth as much as $1 billion.
* "Pentagon has quietly awarded $300,000 contract to SAIC, major defense consultant, to study how Defense Dept could design 'effective strategic influence' campaign to combat global terror; this comes year after Defense Sec Rumsfeld disbanded Pentagon's Office of Strategic Influence after it became known that office was considering plans to provide false news items to unwitting foreign journalists to influence policymakers and public sentiment abroad; senior Pentagon officials say new contract with SAIC does not reflect backdoor effort to resurrect discredited office and is merely study to understand Al Qaeda better and find ways to combat it." (Pentagon and Bogus News: All Is Denied, by Eric Schmitt, New York Times, Dec 5, 2003, p. A6).
* 2003 Drug Enforcement Administration contract to provide "information security support."
* 2003 mission support to USSTRATCOM and the U.S. Air Force includes the Integrated Tactical Warning/Attack Assessment, Global Strike, Integrated Missile Defense, Information Operations, global C4ISR, strategic war planning and execution, strategic analyses and assessments, space control, space support, force enhancement, and force application.
* 2003 contract worth $37.4 million to design an integrated criminal history system for Florida.
* Running Iraqi television and newspapers after the US occupation in 2003.
* 2004 Defense Information Systems Agency's Global Information Grid Bandwidth Expansion project, an optical terrestrial network to deliver Internet Protocol traffic among defense and intelligence locations worldwide. $400 million in the first phase and $1 billion over the first two years.
* 2004 NATO Ballistic Missile Defense Feasibility Study Contract.
* funding identity recognition software venture SRD Software (which also receives funding from Reed Elsevier and the CIA's In-Q-Tel).




"French joinery giant Lapeyre - part of the Saint Gobain Group - owns the Brazilian company Eldorado which Greenpeace has exposed for its role in trading in illegal Amazonian wood."

Greenpeace Exposes International Timber Criminals In French Port: Activists board ship with Amazon cargo from multinationals Lapeyre and WTK. Greenpeace International Forests Campaign, July 28, 2000,

French Commandos Arrest Greenpeace Activists In Honfleur, France: MV Aquitania abandons port without offloading Amazon criminal timber. Greenpeace International Forests Campaign, July 29, 2000,

Against the Law: the G8 and the Illegal Timber Trade, by Greenpeace International




4109 Fruit Valley Rd., Vancouver, WA

telephone 206-696-0561

Engineering, sales, and installation of sawmills in Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, Mexico, Cameroon, Zaire, and Ghana. Advertises in Asian Timber.




Burma-Thailand border

Hydroelectric dams construction planned; 5,000 of the planned 6,000 MW could be sold to Thailand (about half Thailand's current consumption (The Nation (Bangkok), Sept. 10, 1993; Burma Issues, Sept. 1993, p. 5).




South Korea

Kideco is a coal export contract owned by Samchok Consolidated Mining and Pan Ocean Shipping Co. (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p. 149-150).




One of the largest logging companies in Malaysia; owned by Hiew Teck Seng through the Yaw and Sons holding company; has ties with Sarawak officials. Sun Kyong and Samling are partners in the joint holding company Barama. Barama signed a logging contract in October 1991 for trees in the North-West and Mazaruni districts of Guyana, to begin in 1993. The concession includes lands of the Warrau, Arawak (Lo-kono), Carib (Ka-rinya), and Akawaio tribes (World Rainforest Report, No. 21, Feb. 1992, p. 34).

"The Samling group of companies and its subsidiary, Samling Strategic Corporation Sdn Bhd, control around 1.5 million hectares of forests in the state of Sarawak (Asia Money, 1995). It also owns large timber operations in Guyana (another 1.69 million hectares), Cambodia (at least 800,000 hectares) and elsewhere. The Samling group of companies is a huge conglomerate consisting of 54 subsidiaries and associate companies (Asia Money, 1995). The Samling group is controlled by the ethnic-Chinese Yaw Teck Seng and his family, and the family's net worth is estimated at US$ 1.6 billion (Forbes, 1995). Whilst most of the group is made up of private companies it has recently acquired a listed company, Lingui Developments Berhad, through a reverse take-over, thus gaining access to the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange. The Lingui 1995 annual report shows that Samling Strategic Corporation Sdn Bhd holds 29.67% of the Lingui shares. Some securities analysts view the Samling Group as the country's largest and most aggressive fully integrated timber group. The group's overseas business stretches to Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, the U.S. and Canada. (The Edge, December 1993). Politically, Yaw Teck Seng is related to a prominent Sarawak State Minister by marriage. Mirzan Mahathir, son of Malaysia's Prime Minister, also sits on the board of directors of Tamex Timber Sdn Bhd, a timber contractor in which the immediate and ultimate holding companies are Samling Strategic Corporation and Yaw Holdings Sdn Bhd. Samling Strategic Corporation is a major shareholder (70 percent) of Tamex Timber Sdn Bhd. Through Limbang Trading (Bintulu) Sdn Bhd, the group also work with Datuk James Wong Kin Min, the President of Sarawak National Party (SNAP, a component party of the National Front, the ruling coalition government in Malaysia). Datuk James Wong is also the current Sarawak Minister for the Environment and Local Government. Controversy surrounds the operations of Samling in Sarawak. The company has tried to obtain signatures on 'Goodwill Agreements' from communities which give the company carte blanche to operate as they wish. Such agreements 'place the responsibility for monitoring operations onto the community where they wish to claim a royalty, give up any claim to traditional lands used for farming and hunting or gathering and must compensate the company for any protest action they may take. Logging operations have been described on many occasions as having destroyed land, fruit trees and other forest products, as well as polluting the rivers. Such actions are said to have driven off game, depleted fish stocks from rivers and deprived communities of potable water.' (Forests Monitor, 1996). (Greenpeace, Dec 1, 1998, An Overview of Asian Companies: Malaysia).




26th Floor, Samsung Main Bldg, 250, 2-ka, Taepyung-ro, Ching-gu, Seoul, South Korea

telephone 011-82-2-751-2114 fax 011-82-2-751-2083

Samsung America, One Executive Drive, Fort Lee NJ 07024

telephone 201-592-7900 fax 201-592-1444

Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1992: Korean for "Three Stars", Samsung is Korea's leading chaebol (industrial group), consisting of 180,000 employees in 29 companies with 1990 sales of $35 billion. Controlled by the Lee family. Trade (33 percent of sales); service (25 percent); electronics (23 percent); heavy industries and chemicals (9 percent). Sixty percent of its sales are from outside Korea; it has 229 branches in 54 countries.

Owns Chonju (Honju ?) Paper.

Plans a $200 million ethylene plant in Jilin, China (Business Week, Nov. 16, 1992, p. 53-54).

A Daewoo-led consortium is working on a three-year, $100 million feasibility study for a $20 billion natural gas project. The project could involve a pipeline from Yakutsk in eastern Russia, through North Korea to the South. Yakutsk, at a trillion cubic meters of gas, could be the largest natural gas field outside of Alaska. Also involved are Yukong, Samsung, Lucky-Goldstar International, and the Korean Petroleum Development Agency (Business Week, Nov. 16, 1992, p. 53-54).





The San Andreas mine is an open pit heap leach operation; the mine was begun in the 16th century. Many companies are involved: Asarco; Gold Mines of America; Fisher-Watt Gold Co; Madeline Mines Ltd; Milner Consolidated; Kennecott has an 80 percent interest (Engineering & Mining Journal, Feb. 1992, p. 7).




CH-4002, Lichtstrasse 35, Basel, Switzerland

telephone 41-61-324-11-11

608 Fifth Ave., New York NY 10020

telephone 212-307-1122

Founded in the 1880s to manufacture synthetic dyes; by the 1920s Sandoz was making diversified chemicals. Was part of the Basel AG cartel. Now has 218 affiliates in 55 countries, including Sandoz Pharma, Sandoz Agro, Sandoz seeds, Sandoz Nutrition, and Sandoz Pharma, Sandoz Agro, Sandoz Seeds (including the U.S. company Northrup King), Sandoz Nutrition, and BT Holdings (construction products), and biotechnology companies Genetic Therapy and SyStemix (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1993, p. 426-427).

The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on Sandoz in 1991-92 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).

See also The Greenpeace Book of Greenwash (1992).

In July 1993, Greenpeace protestors occupied a toxic waste incinerator under construction at Sandoz's new pharmaceutical plant in Cork Harbour, Ireland, because an agreement that would prevent the discharge of cancer-causing dioxins was reversed. Contact: Clare O'Grady Walshe, Greenpeace toxics campaigner, or Margaret Ward at 088-558773 or 088-562546 ("Ireland Incinerator Protest" by toxicsdesk in Econet igc:en.toxics, July 18, 1993).



SANTA FE BRAUN see Kuwait Petroleum Corporation




Houston TX

Santa Fe Energy's Trend International subsidiary (Bermuda) has signed two oil exploration and production deals with Myanmar Oil & Gas Enterprise (the military regime controlling Burma). The two areas involve 400,000 acres in the central basin of the northern Irrawaddy River Valley in Burma. Another Santa Fe subsidiary has agreed with Apache Oil to take a half interest in two other other oil blocks in the Irrawaddy, another 500,000 acres (Business Wire, July 1, 1992, p. 1).




Nacimiento, Chile

Santa Fe Forestal y Industria, a $460 million pulp plant in Nacimiento, Chile (New York Times and Seattle P-I, Nov. 28, 1991).

The Santa Fe Group is a joint venture of Royal Dutch Shell, Scott Paper and Citibank involved in genetically engineered eucalyptus trees for two plantations in Chile. The plantations that receive the trees will eventually provide the Santa Fe pulping plant with all the raw materials it needs to generate an anticipated $100 million a year profit. With an initial investment of $28 million in the industry, Santa Fe vice president Nick Whalley admits that "the short term profitability is not good but we project substantial financial returns two to three years from now" (Source is "Chile: Gen. Engineered Eucalyptus," excerpted from "Biotech Bulletin - 12/9/92," in Econet env.biotech, which cites David Lascelles, "Where Paper Profits are Growing Up a Gum Tree," Financial Times, December 4, 1992).



SANTA FE INTERNATIONAL see Kuwait Petroleum Corporation



SANTA FE MINERALS see Kuwait Petroleum Corporation



SANTA FE OFFSHORE see Kuwait Petroleum Corporation




Sarwak, Malaysia

Also called Genting Sanyen (PPI: Pulp & Paper International, July 1992, p. 17).

Ishinomaki Plywood and Goodmatch are setting up a veneer, plywood, particleboard, and medium-density fibreboard joint ventures in Sungai Binjei, Batang Rajang, in Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. Goodmatch is associated with the Sanyan Group, a Sarawak majority-owned company (PPI: Pulp & Paper International, July 1992, p. 17; and Asian Timber, June 1993, p. 8).







Involved in privatization of food processing and distribution in Hungary; it is U.S. OPIC-assisted (OPIC 1991 Annual Report).




Scotia Pacific Holdings Company is a subsidiary of Maxxam (Wild Forest Review, Oct-Nov. 1995, p. 10).



SCOTT PAPER acquired by Kimberly-Clark

1 Scott Plaza, Philadelphia PA 19113

telephone 213-522-5000 or 1-800-835-7268 (1-800-TEL-SCOT) for consumer comments.

Scott has a pine and gmelina paper mill in Turrialba, Costa Rica (FAO, 1988).

Scott is considering building a "household and sanitary paper" mill in Samutsakhorn, Thailand (FAO, 1988).

Scott had plans with Astra to cut and then replant with eucalyptus an area of 800,000 acres on the Digut River, Irian Jaya, Indonesia to make toilet and tissue paper (World Rainforest Report, March/May 1989, and June/Aug. 1989). In October 1989, Scott announced it was cancelling these plans (Tropical Echoes, Samhain, 1989).

Papua New Guinea plantation planned (Papua New Guinea Times).

Along with Citicorp and Shell, owns Santa Fe Forestal y Industria, a $460 million pulp plant in Nacimiento, Chile (New York Times and Seattle P-I, Nov. 28, 1991). The Santa Fe Group is a joint venture of Royal Dutch Shell, Scott Paper and Citibank involved in genetically engineered eucalyptus trees for two plantations in Chile. The plantations that receive the trees will eventually provide the Santa Fe pulping plant with all the raw materials it needs to generate an anticipated $100 million a year profit. With an initial investment of $28 million in the industry, Santa Fe vice president Nick Whalley admits that "the short term profitability is not good but we project substantial financial returns two to three years from now" (Source is "Chile: Gen. Engineered Eucalyptus," excerpted from "Biotech Bulletin - 12/9/92," in Econet env.biotech, which cites David Lascelles, "Where Paper Profits are Growing Up a Gum Tree," Financial Times, Dec. 4, 1992).




Merriam, Kansas

Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts

In November 1998, Time magazine devoted nearly a quarter of Donald Bartlett and James Steele's four-part special report on corporate welfare to Seaboard, its subsidies, its treatment of its work force, and its environmental and business crimes. See also Boston Business Journal, February 1993; and Kansas City Star, April 1993.

"Holdings include flour mills in Ecuador, Guyana, Haiti, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Democratic Republic of Congo; feed mills in Ecuador, Nigeria and Congo; 3,100 acres of shrimp ponds in Ecuador and Honduras; 37,000 acres of sugarcane, 4,200 acres of citrus and a sugar mill, all in Argentina; a winery in Bulgaria; other agricultural and business interests in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Venezuela; electric-power-generating facilities in the Dominican Republic; shipping companies in Liberia; containerized cargo vessels running between Miami and Central and South America; ... processing plant and hog farms in Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas and Colorado, along with poultry-processing plants, feed mills, hatcheries and a network of 700 contract chicken growers in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky and Tennessee." (Time magazine special report/corporate welfare, Nov 30, 1998).

Seaboard's annual sales approx $1.8 billion; 12,000 employees, 10,200 of them in the U.S.

Three quarters of Seaboard Corpation's stock is owned by Seaboard Flour Corp.; 95% of Seaboard Flour is owned by brothers H. Harry and Otto Bresky Jr., their sister Marjorie B. Shifman and family trusts. All told, the family's stock in Seaboard is worth $425 million. (Time magazine special report/corporate welfare, Nov 30, 1998).

"[I]n 1990, Alan R. Kahn, a Wall Street investment broker and Seaboard stockholder, filed a lawsuit in Delaware seeking an accounting of the profits earned by the Breskys through their intercompany dealings. Kahn alleged that the Breskys required Seaboard Corp. to enter into business deals with Seaboard Flour that generated "unlawful profits" for Seaboard Flour. In short, according to Kahn's allegations, the Breskys used their controlling positions in the two companies to move money from the public company to their private business... Robohm was subpoenaed in the Kahn lawsuit, and he recited a litany of business dealings in which, he said, Bresky had interests in companies that profited from inflated contracts with Seaboard Corp. According to his deposition, kickbacks were paid to officials in foreign governments; contracts were padded, with the excess money diverted to Swiss bank accounts; management fees were inflated; brokerage commissions ran 2 1/2 to five times the usual rate. And in the case of one Seaboard subsidiary, "there was a great deal of cash that was...unaccounted for... The litigation dragged on for four years. Finally, in 1994, the lawsuit was settled when Seaboard Flour and the Breskys, without admitting "any liability or wrongdoing," agreed to pay $10.8 million to Seaboard Corp. For practical purposes, that meant the Breskys transferred money from the family-owned Seaboard Flour to the publicly traded but still family-controlled Seaboard Corp." (Time magazine special report/corporate welfare, Nov 30, 1998).

"From 1990 to 1997, Seaboard Corp. was the beneficiary of at least $150 million in economic incentives from federal, state and local governments to build and staff poultry- and hog-processing plants in the U.S.; insure its operations in foreign countries, and sell its products. Seaboard's corporate welfare in the 1990s: Minnesota provided more than $3 million in economic incentives; Kentucky, $23 million; Kansas, $10 million; and Oklahoma, $100 million. The Federal Government's OPIC provided $25 million in insurance for business ventures abroad." OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORP. (OPIC) : Insurance in 1990s to cover wheat and corn mills in Mozambique, a shrimp hatchery and shrimp farm in Ecuador and a flour mill in Haiti. Value: $25 million. U.S. AGRICULTURE DEPT. SUBSIDIZED SALES: Subsidized sales of agricultural products under the Public Law 480 program. Value: $4 million. CITY OF ALBERT LEA, MINN. : Loan to help Seaboard buy the existing plant; reduced sewage charges. Value: $3.3 million. OKLAHOMA DEVELOPMENT FINANCE AUTHORITY : Revenue bonds for hog-processing operations and to finance construction of sewage-treatment facilities. Value: $30 million. KENTUCKY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FINANCE AUTHORITY : Tax credits for a chicken-processing facility. Value: $5.7 million. GRAVES COUNTY (KY.) INDUSTRIAL REVENUE BOND: To support a Seaboard chicken-processing plant. Value: $14.5 million. CITY OF GUYMON, OKLA.: Grant paid for with a sales tax levied on local shoppers to help build a hog-processing plant. Value: $8 million. KANSAS DEVELOPMENT FINANCE AUTHORITY: Industrial revenue bonds to pay for hog-farming operations. Value: $9.6 million. (Time magazine special report/corporate welfare, Nov 30, 1998).




Toxic manufacture of computer hard drives in Thailand.





Owned by Raytheon (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992).

Involved in oil drilling in Burma. Myanmar Oil & Gas Enterprise (MOGE), the agency overseeing oil and gas development in Burma, is controlled by the military regime SLORC; since 1989, MOGE has signed multimillion dollar contracts with many foreign oil companies. A subsidiary of the Thai national oil company, PTT Exploration and Production, has proposed developing natural gas in Burma's Gulf of Mataban and shipping it to Thailand through an undersea pipeline. (See article by Dara O'Rourke, "Oil in Burma: Fueling Oppression," Multinational Monitor 13(10):7-11, Oct. 1992).




SGS-Thomson Microelectronics is a joint venture between Thomson SA, IRI Holding, and Thorn EMI. Thomson SA is a French government-owned defense electronics firm, the second-largest in the world. IRI Holding is Italian-government owned and Italy's largest industrial group (accounting for about five percent if Italy's GNP), controlling 541 companies ranging from food production to shipbuilding to telecommunications to steel. Thorn EMI is a London-based corporation with music, lighting, electronics, TV and appliance rental and retail stores, radar systems, weapons and defense, security systems, electronic funds transfer, and TV broadcasting (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1993).




For the PR campaign to promote the overcutting of native forests in New Zealand, see Nicky Hager and Bob Burton, Secrets and Lies: Anatomy of an Anti-Environmental PR Campaign (Common Courage Press). 



SHELL OIL (Royal Dutch Shell)

Royal Dutch Shell, 30 Carel van Bylandtlaan, 2596 HR The Hague, Netherlands

Shell Centre, London SE1 7NA, England

Shell Oil USA (acquired 100 percent in 1985), 900 Louisiana St., Houston, TX 77002

telephone 713-241-6161 or 800-248-4257

Royal Dutch Shell began in the 19th century with Russian oil, and built an empire on Asian oil brought home in tankers. In 1990, with sales of $106 billion, Shell for a time surpassed Exxon to become the world's largest oil company, handling six percent of the world's oil and gas and operating in a hundred countries (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1992, p. 274).

Bolivia: U.S. OPIC is providing funding for the 630 kilometer Gas Oriente Boliviano pipeline project owned by a consortium made up of Enron, Shell, and the Bolivian company Transredes. The pipeline project forms part of a $2.1 billion, 3,150 km scheme to transport natural gas from Bolivia to Sao Paulo, Brazil. See Gas Oriente Boliviano.

Brazil: Shell also mines coal and other minerals. It is involved in bauxite projects with Alcoa and sister company Billiton near the Trombetas River and on Sao Luis Island in Brazil.

Chad-Cameroon: In 1996, Exxon, Royal Dutch Shell, and Elf Aquitaine began the $3 billion Doba Basin pipeline project to move crude oil from southern Chad to a port in Cameroon. Exxon and Shell each held a 40 percent interest in the Doba plan. Elf held the remaining 20 percent. In November 1999, Shell and Elf Aquitaine announced they were backing out of the project, but Exxon and the World Bank reaffirmed their commitment to the project. The project would develop 300 oil wells near Doba to bring onstream in 2001 between 200,000 and 250,000 barrels of oil per day, with an estimated yield of 900 million barrels over 15 to 20 years. The oil would be shipped via a 650-mile (1,050 km) pipeline to a new terminal at the Cameroon port of Kribi (Andrew Callus, Chad Oil Dream Fades as Shell, Elf Quit Doba, Reuters, Nov.10, 1999).

Chile: Along with Citicorp and Scott Paper, owned Santa Fe Forestal y Industria, a $460 million pulp plant in Nacimiento, Chile (New York Times and Seattle P-I, Nov. 28, 1991). The Santa Fe Group was a joint venture of Royal Dutch Shell, Scott Paper and Citibank involved in genetically engineered eucalyptus trees for two plantations in Chile. The plantations that receive the trees will eventually provide the Santa Fe pulping plant with all the raw materials it needs to generate an anticipated $100 million a year profit. With an initial investment of $28 million in the industry, Santa Fe vice president Nick Whalley admits that "the short term profitability is not good but we project substantial financial returns two to three years from now" (Source is "Chile: Gen. Engineered Eucalyptus," excerpted from "Biotech Bulletin - 12/9/92," in Econet env.biotech, which cites David Lascelles, "Where Paper Profits are Growing Up a Gum Tree," Financial Times, Dec. 4, 1992).

Indonesia: Astra, Shell (Shell Nusantara Forestry BV), and the Indonesian-state-owned forestry corporation Inhutani signed an agreement for the development of 100,000-hectares of tree plantations over ten years in South Kalimantan, Indonesia (World Rainforest Report, No. 21, Feb. 1992, p. 26, citing Jakarta Post, Dec. 19, 1991).

Nigeria: In 1958, Shell discovered petroleum near the Niger River delta in Nigeria; since then, Shell has extracted $30 billion worth of oil and natural gas. Shell, Mobil, Chevron, Texaco, and other oil companies generate 80 percent of Nigeria's annual revenue. Since 1993, the local Ogoni people have been suppressed; 20 Ogoni towns have been destroyed, 1,800 people killed, and 50,000 left homeless. The Nigerian government's hanged Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other Ogoni peoples activists on November 10, 1995. Shell has been condemned for its role; over 300 people protested at Shell's New York headquarters on November 13, 1995. A few days after the execution, Shell announced a new $4 billion Nigerian natural gas plan; ELF, and Agit are also involved. (Interview with Human Rights Watch on National Public Radio on Nov. 16; RAN Action Alert, No. 115, Dec. 1995; Steve Kretzmann, Nigeria's Drilling Fields, Multinational Monitor, Jan-Feb. 1995).

For its role in Nigeria, Shell was named one of 1995's worst corporations (Russell Mokhiber and Andrew Wheat, Shameless: 1995's 10 Worst Corporations, Multinational Monitor, Dec. 1995, p. 9-16).

"Issues relating to environmental degradation in the River Delta region alleged to be caused by the operations of the Shell Petroleum Development Company have received insufficient attention," said Soli Sorabjee, the Special Rapporteur on Nigeria to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Sorabjee called for the establishment of an independent agency to determine "all aspects of environmental damage due to oil exploration." Sorabjee's report to the UN can be found on the Internet at

Dozens of protestors were killed on New Year's eve 1999. See

"Faced with growing sabotage of its strategic oil pipelines, Nigeria's elected government is creating a new police unit authorized to shoot vandals on sight, police and state oil company officials told The Associated Press. [...] Police spokesman Young Arebamen confirmed that a new "mobile, well-trained force" was being created to protect oil facilities and personnel in the desperately poor Niger Delta, where most of the wells are drilled. ...'' (Abuja, Nigeria (March 22, 2000,

Faced with mounting sabotage of its strategic oil pipelines, Nigeria's elected government is creating a new police unit authorized to shoot vandals on sight, said police and state oil company officials. The unit is being drawn from the controversial police intelligence branch - the Secret Security Service - and will be subsidized by the government-run Nigerian National Petroleum Corp., which oversees the country's oil production, said the company's chief spokesman, Ndu Ughamadu. (St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 23, 2000).

Contempt case for Shell over gas. By Richard Black, BBC News, Dec 24, 2005.
The oil multinational Shell is facing contempt of court proceedings in Nigeria over gas flaring.
Last month, a court ordered the company to stop flaring gas from oil wells in the country, which accounts for much of Africa's greenhouse gas emissions.
Shell has not halted the practice, so campaign groups have initiated proceedings for contempt of court, which can result in imprisonment.
Shell has appealed against the initial judgement and denies it is in contempt.
Waste of resources
In November, the Nigerian Federal Court, sitting in Benin City, ruled on a case brought by environmental and social groups on behalf of the Iwherekan community of Delta State.
They argued that flaring creates significant local pollution and health problems, and is inherently wasteful of a resource which could bring income to local communities.
International environmental groups also argue it is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions, with flaring in Nigeria perhaps the biggest source of emissions in Africa.
The Benin court ruled that gas flaring amounts to "...a gross violation of [the plaintiffs'] fundamental right to human life and dignity...", and that Shell and the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation had broken national law by failing to carry out an environmental impact assessment.
By failing to stop flaring, as ordered by the court, campaigners now argue Shell is in contempt, and have initiated proceedings in the Federal Court.
"Since judgement was passed, Shell has not halted her illegal activities," said Nnimmo Bassey, of the Nigerian group Environmental Rights Action.
"We see a multinational corporation that has no respect for the rule of law, but who at every turn loves to characterise local people as vandals and saboteurs."
Earlier this month, an attack with explosives on an oil pipeline forced Shell to suspend extraction at two of its wells and delay shipments.
The background to this and other incidents is the view held by some Nigerian communities that they do not benefit from oil wealth, with profit going to the multinationals.
"It's astonishing that Shell has not complied with this court order preventing it from continuing gross violations of human rights," added Peter Roderick of the international organisation Climate Justice, which has been involved with the action.
"Its behaviour seriously undermines respect for the rule of law that its operations rely on."
Appeals pending
In London, a Shell spokeswoman said that the company did not believe itself in contempt.
"The Benin High Court went ahead with its decision despite the fact that Shell Nigeria's preliminary appeal on jurisdiction was still outstanding," she told the BBC News website.
"In addition, the company has made a further appeal because it believes that the court did not adopt the correct procedure.
"Our appeals will be held by the Nigerian Court of Appeal; until then, our understanding is that we are not in contempt of court for continuing to flare gas."
The company says it flares the gas rather than processing it because there is no local market and no facilities which could liquefy it for export, though such facilities are now under development.
Shell and the Nigerian government have both committed to phase out flaring in Nigeria by 2008.
In 2004 the World Bank said that companies operating in Nigeria, which include Shell, ExxonMobil and Chevron, flare 75% of the gas that they produce.

Nigerian militants to kill hostages if US man dies. By Tom Ashby. Reuters,, Jan 19, 2006.

Nigerian kidnappers said on Thursday their U.S. hostage was gravely ill and threatened to kill three other foreign oil workers held captive if he died.

A leader of the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta, whose month-long campaign against oil installations has driven up world oil prices, told Reuters by telephone that the health of U.S. oil worker Patrick Landry was failing.

"One of them is sick, badly sick and could give up tonight," said the man who identified himself as the ground commander of the movement. "If one of them dies, we kill them all."

The hostages -- who also include a Briton, a Honduran and a Bulgarian -- complained by telephone of diarrhea and fatigue from constant movement in the humid, mosquito-plagued creeks of Nigeria's southern delta.

The workers appealed to their governments to press Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo to meet the militants' demands for the release of ethnic Ijaw leaders and for local control over the region's oil wealth.

The Ijaw militant group said they have not received any contact from Nigeria's government and would not accept a ransom for the hostages, abducted nine days ago from an offshore oilfield operated by Royal Dutch Shell.

"We are in bad shape here, we really are," Landry told Reuters by telephone. "Meet these people's demands. We are not military: we came here to work."

The militants are also demanding that Shell, the top investor in Nigeria, pay $1.5 billion to Bayelsa state to compensate for pollution. Shell has cut its production by 210,000 barrels a day -- a tenth of Nigeria's output -- and pulled out 500 staff.

Bombing Campaign

From hideouts in the delta's maze of tidal creeks and mangrove swamps, the militants have already bombed two export pipelines, causing a massive spill, and attacked at least two large oil platforms. Dozens have been killed, including about 12 Nigerian soldiers, intelligence sources say.

"To demonstrate our disregard for the Nigerian military presence in the Niger Delta, we will carry out a series of very significant attacks very shortly," the group said in an email earlier on Thursday.

The group said two jailed Ijaw leaders, militant Mujahid Dokubo-Asari and former Bayelsa state governor Diepreye Alamieyeseigha, were the only qualified mediators for talks with the government.

Nigeria's only Ijaw governor, Alamieyeseigha was impeached last month for money-laundering after escaping arrest in Britain and now faces criminal charges. Asari, who led a bloody militant rebellion in the delta in 2004, is on trial for treason.

The kidnappers had earlier said they would not harm the hostages and had offered to free Landry, who suffers from high blood pressure, if his firm's managing director took his place. Landry works for U.S.-based oil service firm Tidex.

Amid rising north-south polarization in Africa's most populous country, some analysts believe the violence could be intended to reinforce the delta's claim over the choice of the ruling party candidate for presidential elections next year.

An Ijaw uprising before 2003 elections curbed 40 percent of Nigerian output.

So far, Shell is the only oil major to admit it has suffered at the hands of the Ijaw militants. France's Total and Italy's Agip, a unit of ENI, have both denied militant claims they were attacked.

Nigeria told not to use force to free oil workers. Guardian (UK), Jan 20, 2006.

British diplomatic officials today cautioned Nigeria against using force to free four oil workers kidnapped in the south of the country.

Consular staff met Nigerian authorities in the state of Bayelsa, in Nigeria's oil-rich delta region, to discuss how to secure the safe release of the foreign workers - a Briton, an American, a Bulgarian and a Honduran - who were seized on January 11 near a Shell oil field.

"The safety of the hostages is paramount to us, and we would not wish to see military action that would endanger their safety," the British high commission spokesman, Graeme Bannatyne, said.

"Consular officials will remain in the Niger delta until the conclusion of this situation," Mr Bannatyne said.

Militants have launched a string of attacks on Nigerian oil installations, cutting the country's crude exports by nearly 10%.

They are demanding $1.5bn (849m) in compensation from Shell for environmental damage, and that the government release two figureheads of their ethnic Ijaw group, the militia leader Mujahid Dokubo-Asari and the former Bayelsa governor, Diepreye Alamieyeseigha.

Mr Dokubo-Asari was detained in September on treason charges, while Mr Alamieyeseigha faces extradition to Britain, after jumping bail in the UK on charges of money laundering.

Mr Alamieyeseigha apparently dressed up as a woman and used a forged passport to skip bail on charges of laundering 1.8m.

The day after the kidnapping, a major Shell pipeline leading to its Forcados export terminal was blown up. Shell has evacuated hundreds of workers from the delta since the unrest began.

The kidnapped workers are employed by two companies contracted by Shell in the delta: the British firm, Ecodrill, and the US company, Tidewater. Nigeria, Africa's leading oil producer, exports 2.5m barrels of oil a day and is the fifth-biggest source of US oil imports.

Bibliography on Shell

Earthlife Africa (Capetown, South Africa). Funding Murder in Nigeria: Boycotting Shell Yet Again. Boycott Quarterly, Spring 1996, 3(3): 22-26.

Project Underground

Sierra Club Shell/Nigeria campaign to support the Ogoni is at

Doyle, Jack. Riding the Dragon: Royal Dutch Shell & the Fossil Fire (Boston: Environmental Health Center)





Allied Ordnance, a joint venture between Nobel Industries and Shengli Holding, is one of the major suppliers of weapons to SLORC, the military regime conrolling Burma (Burma Issues, Oct. 1993, p. 3).




Forestry joint ventures in Siberia, Russia. Contact Pacific Environment and Resources Center





China's State Investment Corporation of Forestry (SICOF) has expressed interest in setting up joint ventures with the Malaysian Timber Industry Board (Asian Timber, June 1993, p. 12).



SIERRA PACIFIC INDUSTRIES click here for detailed profile

Redding CA

Privately-held wood products company with a million acres of timberland in California -- a seventh of the private timber in the state). In 1988, SPI acquired Santa Fe Pacific Timber in 1988, including its 520,000 acres of 19th-century railroad grant land in Northern California. SPI had 1990 sales of $270 million; has 2,000 employees; has operations in Arcata, Burney, Hayfork, Loyalton, Red Bluff, Ritchfield, Quincy, and Susanville. Was behind the Quincy Library Group proposal to increase cutting o public lands.

Directory of Corporate Affiliations.




Reno NV

Holding company for oil and gas (Sierra Energy), real estate (Lands of Sierra), and utilities (Sierra Pacific Power); established in 1984. Has $1.3 billion in assets, but owes $884 million (Directory of Corporate Affiliations).







1201 Third Ave. Bldg., Seattle, WA 98101

telephone 206-292-5000

2301 N. Columbia Blvd., Portland, OR 97217

telephone 503-289-1111

Simpson Investments, a secretive, privately-held corporation, had estimated revenues in 1992 of $826 million (Forbes).

Simpson has a paper mill joint venture with the Chilean firm CMPC. It will also operate a pulp mill in Renaiko (southern Chile) under the terms of a debt agreement between Chile and six American and Japanese banks (Earth Island Journal, Fall 1989, p. 4). See also Earth Island Journal (Fall 1989, p. 44-45) and Catalyst (v.7 n.1, p. 19) for criticism of "debt swaps" as a tool for conservation.

In Guatemala, gmelina hardwood is chipped and sent to the Simpson mill in Pasadena, Texas (Seattle Weekly, Oct. 5, 1988, p. 40).

A Simpson investment in Chile failed when "the trees turned out to be rotten and the Allende government wouldn't let it take its money home" (Seattle Weekly, Oct. 5, 1988, p. 40).

Simpson is also advertised in Asian Timber Buyers Guide 1990, p. 30.





Includes more than 135 subsidiaries operating in pulp and paper (Southeast Aisa's largest producer, and the world's largest stationary producer), palm-oil, chemicals, finance and banking, hotels, telecommunications, pig-breeding, and real estate. Sinar Mas is directed by Eka Tjipta Widjaja (Oei Ek Tjhong) and family, and is of course well-connected to Suharto. See Carrere and Lohmann, 1996, Pulping the South, pp. 212-223.

Sinar Mas pulp mills, with 540,000 hectares of timberland concessions, include:

Indah Kiat, Perawang, Sumatra, Indonesia. $520 million. Joint venture with Taiwanese corporation Chung Hwa Pulp and Yuen Foong Yu. Migrant laborers seized company vehicles to get their wages (Pulping the South, p. 223).

Wirya Karya Sakti, Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. $630 million. 241,000 hectares of logged-over forest, being replanted with pulpwood.




South Africa



In January 2000, Glaxo Wellcome annoounced a plan to buy SmithKline Beecham for $76 billion in stock.. Glaxo SmithKline would be the world's largest drugmaker with 7 percent of the global pharmaceutical market and a market value of about $182 billion.







rue Royale 30, 1000 Brussels, Belgium

telephone 32-2-517-1672

Generale Bank, 12 East 49th Street, New York NY 10017

telephone 212-418-8705

From The Global Marketplace (1987): Secretive corporation involved in hundreds of industrial, financial, agricultural, shipping, and real estate companies, including:

Generale de Banque

Union Miniere

Metallurgie Hoboken-Overpelt

Union Mines (U.S., including a zinc mine in Tennessee)

ARBED (Luxembourg, steel)

Tanks (which owns Ashton Mining in Australia, which has a stake in the Argyle Diamond Mine, the Benguela Railway in Angola, and half of Dillon Read in London)


the mothballed Oracle Ridge copper mine in Arizona

zinc foundries in France

a hydroelectric power station at Lubilanji in Zaire

diamond mines in Zaire

a brewery in Zhuhai, China

residential developments in Florida and Belgium

orange groves in Spain



the Alcatel telecommunications giant

CBR Cementbedrijven

Societe Generale was begun by King William I in 1822, before Belgium was an independent country. In 1885, after King Leopold II came to power, the company was used to colonize the Free State of the (Belgian) Congo, now known as Zaire. Copper, cobalt, diamonds, tin, and uranium were exploited with such cruelty that Leopold was forced to make it an official Belgian colony. But even a half century later, the outflow from 1955-1960 from the Congo was estimated by Business Week at $1.3 billion. This was about half of the profits of Societe Generale. Zaire's 1960 transition from colony to independent country included civil war, the assassination of Patrice Lumumba, and the installation of the corrupt and repressive Joseph Mobutu. Societe Generale's Union Miniere was nationalized, but Mobutu invited the Belgians to continue operating the mines (The Global Marketplace, 1987, p. 553-560). See also Jonathan Kwitney's Endless Enemies and Louis Turner's Multinational Companies and the Third World.

See also Petrofina.



SOHIO (STANDARD OIL OF OHIO) see British Petroleum




See also The Greenpeace Book of Greenwash (1992).




Sony is one of the five corporations used as case studies in Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations and the New World Order, by Richard J. Barnet and John Cavanagh (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994).




Involved in a joint venture gold mine at Omai in Guyana with Cambior, Fluor Daniel Wright, Golden Star Resources, Ivanhoe Capital, and Placer Dome (Marcus Colchester, "Sacking Guyana" in Multinational Monitor, Sept. 1991, p. 8-14).




Owns Mission Power Engineering Co., which is involved in negotiations with Hawaii Electric Industries over geothermal development in the Puna rainforest (Earth First! Journal, August 1, 1990, p. 10). See also the entry for True Geothermal. Southern Cal Ed announced it was looking for a buyer for Mission in January 1991.

Involved in Black Mesa coal mining (see Peabody).




64 Perimeter Center East, Atlanta GA 30346

telephone 404-393-0650

Founded as Alabama Power in 1906; acquisitions and consolidation of utilities in the southern U.S. has resulted in the country's second largest utility, with more than 250 coal (77 percent), hydroelectric (5 percent), and nuclear (17 percent) power generating units and three million customers in Alabama, Georgia, northwestern Florida, and southeastern Mississippi. By the early 1930s, the Morgan-controlled Commonwealth & Southern Corporation owned 165 utilities and its president was Republican presidential nominee Wendell Willkie; in 1942 the U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission dissolved the company. The modern holding company, Southern, was created in 1949 (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 506).

In 1954, President Eisenhower ordered the Atomic Energy Commission to purchase energy from Southern Compay and the Middle South Utilities (Entergy), so that the Tennessee Valley Authority would not have to build more power plants to serve the Oak Ridge nuclear facilities. Ensuing revelations of manipulation for the benefit of private power companies, and the threat of the return of the huge holding companies that had broken in the 1940s, forced Eisenhower to cancel the contracts (Richard Rudolph and Scott Ridley, Power Struggle: The Hundred-Year War over Electricity, Harper & Row, 1986, p. 106-109).

Southern Company neared bankruptcy in the mid-1970s; nuclear power construction costs have also been a problem in the 1980s and 1990s. Southern Company subsidiaries now include Alabama Power, Georgia Power, Gulf Power, Mississippi Power, Savannah Electric and Power, Southern Electric Generating Company (SEGCO), Southern Electric International, Southern Investment Group, and Southern Nuclear Operating Company. The Southern Company has been investigated for illegal political contributions, and Southern Company president Edward Addison allegedly shifted company pension fund transactions to his son, who was a broker (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 506).

The Southern Company was on the Council on Economic Priorities' 1995 Worst Polluters List.



SOUTHERN PERU COPPER CO. (SPCC) subsidiary of Asarco

New York

The issue of its disposal of heavy metals in rivers and coastal waters is to be heard in 1992 by the International Water Tribunal in the Netherlands (World Rivers Review, Nov/Dec. 1991, p. 9).




10 Avenue de l'entreprise, 95863 Cergy-Pontoise, France

telephone (1) 34 24 30 00

Electricity (51 precent of 1991 revenues; civil engineering (19 percent); construction (18 percent); engineering services (9 percent); and "development" (3 percent); 72 percent of 1991 revenues came from France; 8 percent from Africa; 7 percent from North America, and 13 percent from the rest of the world (Worldscope database record).

Spie is a contractor (along with McConnell Dowell) for a $125 million oil platform and 105-mile pipeline from the southern highlands to the Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea) (Engineering News Record, June 10, 1991, p. 29).




MCI WorldCom and Sprint announced a $129 billion merger in October 1999.




Operates banana plantations in Costa Rica.

Was the target of a 1985 lawsuit by workers sterilized by exposure to the nemacide DBCP manufactured by Dow and Shell Oil. Costa Rica banned its import and use in 1979. The Texas Supreme Court (upheld by the US Supreme Court) agreed to hear the case in March 1990 (Multinational Monitor, July/Aug. 1990, and Jan/Feb. 1991, p. 16).

Its use of pesticides is to be heard in 1992 by the International Water Tribunal in the Netherlands (World Rivers Review, Nov/Dec 1991, p. 9).







Merged with American Oil Company (Amoco) in 1925; see Amoco. See also Pertamina.


STANDARD OIL OF OHIO (SOHIO) see British Petroleum




Joint venture created in 1993 by Jersey Standard (Exxon) and Socony-Vacuum (Mobil); it used Exxon oil wells and refineries and Mobil's marketing to sell oil in 50 countries. It was broken up by a U.S. anti-trust decision in 1962, leaving each company with half the assets (Everybody's Business, 1990, p. 472).

Stanvac signed exploratory oil drilling contracts with Indonesia in 1989 (Oil & Gas Journal, Aug. 7, 1989, p. 3).

Stanvac is still an Exxon subsidiary, according to Who Owns Whom 1990: Australia & Far East.





Starma, Forest Machine Technology (FMT), Forest Finans, the Norwegian Forestry Research Institute, the Norwegian Council of Export, and other Norwegian government agencies are all involved in logging in the Khabarovsk region of the Russian Far East. The logging ventures, called Forest Starma and Taginskii Lespromkhoz, are based in the Russian coastal town Vanini, began logging in 1992, and are expected to expand with further Norwegian subsidies (from an article by Ragnhild Sved of the Norwegian Society for Nature Conservation in Taiga-News: Newsletter on Boreal Forests, No. 5, March 1993, p. 3).




Decatur IL

Boycott Quarterly. Domino Sugar Workers Hormel'd: International Union Sells Out Local. Boycott Quarterly, Spring 1996, 3(3): 37.

Communities Concerned About Corporations. Corporate Tax Abuse: How A.E. Staley Corporation Receives Tax Givebacks for Jobs It Fails To Retain. Just Cause, Aug. 15, 1995, 2(2). Communities Concerned About Corporations, 1255 Franklin Drive, Kingman AZ 86401-5327.




Boca Raton, Louisiana

"Sterling Worldwide lands Venezuelan timber concessions. (OTC/BB: STWW) has received government permission to buy 400,000 acres of timber concessions in Venezuela for $43.2 million in stock. Sterling plans to issue 3.6 million shares to cover the transaction. The 30-year concession was purchased from Brasme SA of Panama and is expected to generated $10 million a year in revenue. The concession consists of 14 species of hardwoods." (South Florida Business Journal, November 24, 1997).




South Carolina

Gaston Copper Recycling, Hy-Tex Marketing, and Stoller Chemical secretly mixed highly toxic smelting waste dust with fertilizer and exported it to Bangladesh. The "fertilizer" turned out to be nearly seven percent lead, and to contain cadmium and other toxics. Stoller has declared bankruptcy; the three corporations and three employees have been indicted for the illegal treatment and export of hazardous waste (Ann Leonard, "Poison Fields: Dumping Toxic 'fertilizer' on Bangladeshi Farmers," Multinational Monitor, Apr. 1993, p. 14-18).




Box 2325, Boston MA 02107

telephone 617-589-5111

Nuclear power plant manufacturer.

Developing the open-pit Teberabi Goldfields in Ghana with the Pioneer Group (Boston) (two-thirds), Glencar Exploration of Ireland (a quarter), and the Ghana government (10 percent) (Minerals Industry International, Jan. 1989, p. 3).




150 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60601

telephone 312-346-6600

Stone has an April 1989 agreement with the Costa Rican government to replant 60,000 acres with gmelina in the southern region over six years. Headquarters at Salama (Forest Industries, July 1989, p. 7). The scheme is expected to produce 600,000 tons of chips annually for paper mills in the southern U.S., although some 15 percent would go to sawtimber (International Society of Tropical Foresters News, Dec 1989, p. 6). Stone planned a large chip mill on the Osa Peninsula; the chips would be transported by ship to Asia and the U.S. for paper pulp. The Peninsula is home to Corcovado National Park, endangered species, river estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, and whale and dolphin breeding grounds. The Plan xxx (Rainforest Action Network Action Alert, No. 84, May 1993).

A preliminary agreement with the Honduran government that would have given Stone access to most of the country was suspended in February 1992, due to pressure brought against Honduras by its own people, and against Stone by environmentalists and human rights activists. See the San Francisco Chronicle, Dec. 19, 1991; the March 1992 Multinational Monitor article by Dara O'Rourke; and the World Rainforest Report, April-June 1992.

Was on the Council on Economic Priorities' 1995 Worst Polluters List.




Korsnas, MoDo, and Stora reached a settlement on winter graing rights for reindeer with five Lapp villages in Sweden; the villages had taken legal action after the three companies denied access to company forests; the agreement calls for winter grazing to be avaliable to a reduced number of reindeer (PPI: Pulp & Paper International, July 1992, p. 13).




Sarawak, Malaysia

One of the top ten exporters of plywood from Malaysia in 1991 (Asian Timber, April 1992, p. 8).





Signed a contrat with SLORC, the military junta in Burma, to build a 163-kilometer railroad from Chaing Rai in northern Thailand to Kung Ton border town in Burma; this is part of a planned link between Thailand, China, Laos, and Burma (Burma Issues, Aug. 1993, p. 6 and 8, citing the Bangkok Post, July 1, 1993).




2-2, Hitosubashi 1-chrome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 Japan

telephone 011-81-3-3217-5000

Sumitomo of America, 345 Park Ave., 13th Floor, New York, NY 10154

telephone 212-207-0700

1300 SW 5th, Suite 3233, Portland, OR 97201

telephone 503-226-3271

800 5th, Suite 390, Seattle, WA 98104

Began copper mining in Japan in the 17th century. Bought control of Goldman Sachs and Dunlop tire operations in the 1980s. Along with Itoh and Mitsui, one of the world's largest publicly held companies; Sumitomo Bank (founded in 1895) is the third largest. Associated with NEC and Asahi brewing. Metals comprise half its sales; machinery, chemicals, food, textiles, construction and real estate make up the rest. Had sales of $23 yen in 1990 and operations in 87 countries (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1992, p. 289).

In 1988, 1989, and 1990, Sumitomo Forestry imported 1.5, 1.5, and 1.1 million cubic meters of tropical wood. Sumitomo imported 549,181, 713,659, and 529,817 cubic meters, respectively (JATAN, Nov. 1991).

Involved in Sarawak, Malaysia (Rainforest Action Movement). Associated through a zaibatsu with NEC (World Rainforest Report, v.6 n.2, 1990).

Hitachi, Sumitomo, and Toshiba have been awarded contracts to supply turbines for the World Bank-backed Narmada Dam Project of 30 major and 3000 smaller dams in Gujarat state, India. The project could eventually flood 865,000 acres of forest and 500,000 acres of farmland and cause the relocation of a million people. The Japanese government is also providing financing (Seattle Times, Apr. 20, 1990).

Involved in negotiations regarding geothermal development in Hawaii's Puna rainforest (Earth First! Journal, August 1, 1990, p. 10). See the entry for True Geothermal.

A joint venture between Indo Mobil Group, Mazda, Minolta, and Sumitomo to make and assemble Mazda cars in Indonesia was announced in 1990 (Hoover's handbook of World Business 1992, p. 237).

Sumitomo Forestry has a 50,000-hectare concession in east Kalimantan, and a plywood and sawtimber operation at Probolinggo, East Java, Indonesia (SKEPHI, 1990, Selling Our Common Heritage).

Sumitomo-Plum Creek joint venture in the Spokane, Washington Industrial Park manufacturing lodegpole pine glue-laminated wood products for the Japanese housing market (Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce. Plum Creek/Sumitomo plant opens with a gala ceremony: Spokane's 1st U.S./Japanese joint venture. SDJC, Feb. 19-20, 1990).

Sumitomo is partners with Philippines businessman Jesus Ayala in Summit Enterprises International (SEI), a banana plantation in Mindanao, Philippines; issues over agrarian reform, labor, and pesticide use have been covered briefly in Multinational Monitor (Jan/Feb. 1994, p. 23).

Sumitomo speculation caused a crisis in the world copper market and cost Sumitomo $2.6 billion (Wall Street Journal, June 21, 1996). Sumitomo's trader was arrested for forging documents in copper trading with Merrill Lynch (Seattle Times, Oct. 22, 1996, p. E5).

Sumitomo is the parent corporation of JCO, which operated the Tokamiura nuclear facility:

"Tokaimura Operator To Pay $52.3M. The company that ran the Tokaimura nuclear facility that was the site of Japan's worst nuclear incident has agreed to pay $52.3 million in damages to businesses hurt by the disaster, the Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper reported on December 29. Under an agreement with the local government, JCO Co. will settle 2,679 of the more than 5,000 outstanding claims. JCO's liability insurance only covers $9.8 million in damages, so JCO parent company Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. will pay for most of the settlement. JCO attracted criticism after the Sept. 30 incident when it said it would only redress claims from businesses within six miles of the plant, but the company later agreed with the Ibaraki prefectural government to pay half of the total damages by the end of 1999. The incident 70 miles northeast of Tokyo occurred when workers mixed too much uranium with nitric acid and set off an uncontrolled nuclear reaction. The most severely injured of the workers, Hisashi Ouchi, died on December 21. In the wake of Tokaimura, Japan's nuclear power industry is facing allegations of lax safety standards, labor abuses and inadequate worker training, the Los Angeles Times reports. Nearly 90 percent of workers in the country's nuclear power plants are employed by subcontractors. These workers, though poorly trained, are often assigned the 'dirty, difficult and potentially dangerous jobs shunned by regular employees.'" (Greenwire, Jan. 3, 2000, citing AP, San Francisco Chronicle/Examiner online, Dec. 29, 1999, and Sonni Efron, Dec. 30, 1999, and the Los Angeles Times).

"The 'ground has begun to shift' under Japan's electric utilities since the country's worst nuclear incident took place in Tokaimura in September, the New York Times reports. The incident 70 miles northeast of Tokyo occurred when workers mixed too much uranium with nitric acid and set off an uncontrolled nuclear reaction. The incident 'rattled the ironclad coalition between industry and the government,' and a 'groundswell' of public opinion has developed against the nuclear industry. Citizens groups have sued regional power companies to prevent the introduction of new plutonium fuel and petitioned local governments to block plant construction. Industry officials say they just need to be 'patient' until the fervor dies down, and then they will go ahead with plans to build 'many' plutonium-burning plants" (Greenwire, Jan. 13, 2000, citing Howard W. French, New York Times, Jan. 13).




Mandanao, Philippines

Sumitomo is partners with Philippines businessman Jesus Ayala in Summit Enterprises International (SEI), a banana plantation in Mindanao, Philippines; issues over agrarian reform, labor, and pesticide use have been covered briefly in Multinational Monitor (Jan/Feb. 1994, p. 23).



SUN COAL see Sun Company




1801 Market Street, Philadelphia PA 19103

telephone 215-977-3000

Formerly Sun Oil Co. (Sunoco).

Oil and natural gas producer and refiner, begun by the Pew family in 1876. Its first major foreign strike was in Venezuela's Lake Maracaibo in 1957. Sun now operates mostly in Canada and the North Sea, having spun off U.S. production activities as Oryx Energy in 1988. Sun still sells gasoline in Sunoco and Atlantic service stations. Sun subsidiaries include Sun International E&P, Sun Refining, Sun Coal (Kentucky, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wyoming), Suncor (Canada), and Helios Capital (Hoover's Handbooks of American Business 1993, p. 517). Oil refining and marketing accounted for 94 percent of 1991 revenues of $11.9 billion; exploration, production, and mining account for the rest; $8.8 billion was U.S. sales; $1.5 billion Canadian; and $1.6 billion outside North America (Worldscope database record).

In February 1993, Sun became the first Fortune 500 corporation to endorse the Valdez Principles of environmental protection (New York Times, Feb. 15, 1993).

See also Oryx Energy.




South Korea

Sungkyong, an undisclosed Malaysian business group, and the Guyanan government plan to build a plywood plant in Guyana. It is expected to be completed by 1995 and cost US$20 million; about 250,000 cubic meters of plywood will be exported to Korea annually. Sungkyong and the Malaysian company will each own 40 percent; Guyana will own the remaining 20 percent. Sungkyong has a 1.67 million hectare, 50-year concession from the Guyana government, and also plans to build a particleboard and medium-density fibreboard plant in Guyana (Asian Timber, June 1993, p. 8).

Sungkyong (Sun Kyong) and Samling Timber of Malaysia are partners in the joint holding company Barama. Barama signed a logging contract in October 1991 for trees in the North-West and Mazaruni districts of Guyana, to begin in 1993. The concession includes lands of the Warrau, Arawak (Lo-kono), Carib (Ka-rinya), and Akawaio tribes (World Rainforest Report, No. 21, Feb. 1992, p. 34).




Boise ID

In March 1996, the U.S. sued ASARCO, Coeur d'Alene Mines, Hecla Mining, and Sunshine Mining, alleging that these corporations and several affiliates were responsbile for the clean-up of more than 70 million tons of lead, zinc, cadmium, and other toxic mining wastes spread over 1,500 square miles of the Coeur d'Alene River basin in northern Idaho in the past century (Transitions, Mar-Apr. 1996, includes reprints of press releases and news stories; Inland Empire Public Lands Council, PO Box 2210, Spokane WA 99210).




Surin Thanapong Construction, MLL 33 Company, Khukhan Aroonswat, and Udon Supply are named as log importing companies that will benefit from the opening of a new border pass allowing Cambodian timber to be brought into Thailand. The pass is in the Chong Sangam area of the Khukhan District, which is a pristine forest covering both sides of the Cambodian-Thai border; the Thai side of the pass is within the Huay Sala Wildlife reserve (Asian Timber, July 1992, p. 7, citing the Bangkok Post).







Marudi Mt. Mazoa Hill gold prospect in southern Guyana (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991 p. 104).




Selangor, Malaysia

One of the top ten exporters of sawtimber from Malaysia in 1991 (Asian Timber, April 1992, p. 8).




3401 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto CA 94304

telephone 415-885-5050

Began in the 1940s in Mexico City, selling a rainforest vine chemical that could be converted into the female hormone progesterone. In the 1950s Syntex received a patent for birth control pills. Syntex is now incorporated in Panama, and is best known for anti-arthritis and other drugs. It has offices in 24 countries (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992; and Everybody's Business, 1990).

Syntex faces hundreds of dioxin lawsuits filed by former Times Beach, Missouri residents, who were evacuated after dioxin-contaminated oil was sprayed on streets to control dust (Multinational Monitor, Oct. 1991, p. 8).