Corporate profiles compiled by George Draffan

Public Information Network, PO Box 95316, Seattle WA 98145-2316 USA

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In collaboration with Rockview International of Paris, commissioned by Nigeria to do a feasibility study on the Abakaliki lead-zinc deposits (Minerals Industry International, Jan. 1989, p. 4).


MACMILLAN BLOEDEL click here for acquisition by Weyerhaeuser

1075 W. Georgia St, Vancouver BC V6E 3R9, 604-661-8169

Macmillan Bloedel (Macblo) owns or holds cutting rights to almost four million acres in Canada and the United States (2.5 million in British Columbia, 764,000 in Saskatchewan, and 450,000 acres in Alabama and Mississippi) (Forest Industries 1991-92 North American Factbook, p. 192-193).

Macmillan Bloedel was owned by Noranda from 1981 to 1993 (see also Bronfman entry). In 1993, the British Columbia government became Macblo's largest shareholder (as well as its regulator) when it acquired some $40 million worth of stock (Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Aug. 30, 1993, p. A4). One of the main companies involved in the controversial Clayoquot Sound logging on 260,000 hectares on the west side of Vancouver Island; Clayoqout old growth is being pulped for telephone directories purchased by GTE, Pacific Bell, and Yellow Pages California. The April 1993 decision by British Columbia the logging of 75 percent of Clayoquot Sound came two weeks after B.C. purchased Macblo stock (Ancient Forest International's News of Old Growth, Winter 1993/94, citing Friends of Clayoqout Sound, Box 489, Tofino BC, V0R 2Z0, 604-725-4218 and the Western Canada Wilderness Committee, 20 Water Street, Vancouver BC, V6B 1A4, 604-683-8220).

xxx see disk\exports2.doc for scott and champion joining the boycott vs mb...

Workers at the Macmillan Bloedel Port Alberni pulp mill received letters in 1990 threatening their jobs if Noranda had to meet new environmental (dioxin) standards (article by Glenn, Multinational Monitor, 1990).

In September 1992, the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Land and Parks announced that Macmillan Bloedel had been fined $10,000 for violations of the Waste Management Act, including failing to report a spill (B.C. Environment Information Bulletin 1992:ELP151, Sept. 24, 1992).





Indonesian banking and property consortium.

Has a 1.5 million hectare logging concession in Cambodia, equivalent to 20 percent of the country's remaining forests and 8 percent of its national territory (Environmental Investigation Agency, Corporate Power, Corruption & the Destruction of the World's Forests, London, 1996, p. 2-3, citing Down to Earth No. 27, Nov. 1995, citing Jakarta Post, Aug. 29, 1995).




Part-owner of the San Andreas mine in Honduras. Now an open pit heap leach operation, the San Andreas was begun in the 16th century. Many companies are involved, including Asarco; Gold Mines of America; Fisher-Watt Gold Co; Madeline Mines Ltd; Milner Consolidated; Kennecott has an 80 percent interest (Engineering & Mining Journal, Feb. 1992, p. 7).




Drilling in southern Oriente area of Ecuador.





Coal mine. See entry for Wetherby.





Pinto Valley copper mining in Arizona; four miners died in August 1993; Magma was cited for safety violations. Magma acquired the Tintaya copper mine from the Peruvian government; Magma has received insurance coverage from the World Bank affiliate Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA); it was MIGA's first insurance policy, in 1990) (Chatterjee, Pratap. Digging Everyone's Grave: World Bank's Mining Mayhem. Earth First! 16(1): 17, Nov. 1, 1995).




Rio Chiquito gold and silver mine in northern Costa Rica. Newmont Mining is also involved in exploring the property (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p. 179).




Manhattan's proposed mineral exploration in the Sweet Grass Hills in northcentral Montana is opposed by many, including the Sweet Grass Hills Protective Association, the Eagle Creek Hutterite Colony, and the Blackfoot, Chippewa-Cree, Gros Ventre, and Assiniboine Native Americans. U.S. Representative Pat Williams (D-MT) wrote a letter to the U.S. Interior Department asking it to deny an exploration permit, and Montana's chief archaeologist and the federal Advosiry Council on Historic Preservation have nominated the area for historic district designation. Manhattan Minerals' Ernest K. Lehman claims the company has invested over $1 million already (High Country News, Aug. 9, 1993, p. 6; and Clementine: the Journal of Responsible Mineral Development, Spring/Summer 1993, p. 14). In August 1993, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management placed a two-year moratorium on mining, until the BLM ealuates long-term management options for the area. BLM Director Jim Baca stated that :it's time we paid more attetion to the public's cultural and environmental values and give them the weight they deserve in our land use decisions" (Clementine, Autumn 1993, p. 11-12).




Its involvement in auto production in Hungary is U.S. OPIC-assisted (OPIC 1991 Annual Report).




Manville is selling oits Riverwood International unit, and is changing its name to the Schuller International group to distance itself from the bad publicity of asbestos litigation in the 1980s (Business Ethics: The Magazine of Socially Responsible Business, Jan-Feb. 1996, p. 4).




717 17th St., Denver CO 80202

telephone 303-978-2000

Chevron and Manville Sales' Stillwater River, Montana operation is the only source of platinum and palladium in the western hemisphere (Montana: a History of Two Centuries, by M.P. Malone et al, 1991, p. 327).



MARATHON OIL subsidiary of USX

5555 San Felipe St., Houston TX 77056-2798
telephone 713-629-6600

Energy companies including Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, and Marathon have each donated an average of $100,000 to the Russian Petroleum Legislation project, which is being administered by the University of Houston Law Center. The model legislation is to be presented to the Russian Parliament for debate and adoption; if passed it could govern these companies' activities in Russia (Legal Times, Jan. 1992; Multinational Monitor, Mar. 1992, p. 4).

McDermott International, Marathon, and Mitsui are performing a feasibility study for the $8 to $10 billion development of the Piltun-Astoskoye and Lunskoye offshore oil and gas fields on the continental shelf off Sakhalin Island; the fields have an estimated 750 million barrels of oil and 14 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. McDermott would design and construct the project; Marathon would manage the reservoir and field operations; and Mitsui would be responsible for obtaining financing. The M/M/M Consortium, as it is being called, signed an agreement with the Russian government in March 1992; the companies were chosen in part because of their proposed environmental plan for the pristine area, Marathon spokesman Michael Dixon said (Enginerring News Record, May 18, 1992, p. 35).

See also USX.




Copper mining in the Philippines (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p. 136). Marinduque (Sibuyanc?) Island (south of Manilla, near town of Boac); tailings spill 1996.




Copper mining on Negros in Philippines (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p. 136).




6801 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda MD 20817
telephone: 301-897-6000

Major Pentagon and NASA contractor with aeronautics, electronics, information systems, missile, construction materials, and specialty chemicals operations (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 381).

The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on Martin Marietta in 1993 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).

In 1994, the U.S. government agreed to use taxpayer dollars to subsidize military industry mergers as part of a Clinton administration plan to preserve corporations that build weapons. The 1995 merger of Lockheed and Martin Marietta will be entitled to about $1 billion in public money to cover plant shutdowns, employee relocation, and other merger expenses. The 1995 merger of Lockheed Martin will eliminate 30,000 jobs, mostly in Califonria. The Clinton administration will use $31 million in taxpayers' money to pay part of the $92 million in bonuses that Lockheed and Martin Marietta executives granted to themselves as part of the merger (Patrick J. Sloyan, "Taxpayers' bill: $31 million for merger bonuses", Seattle Times, Mar. 17, 1995, p. A1, A17, from Newsday).

Lockheed Martin Loral merger (Business Week, Jan. 22, 1996, p. 40).




200 Park Ave., New York, NY 10166
telephone 212-599-3700

Japanese corporation involved in tropical timber trade, including in Sarawak, Malaysia. Associated through a zaibatsu with Nissan and Canon (World Rainforest Report v.6 n.2 (1990). Also associated with Fuji, Hitachi, and Sapporo (Earth First! Journal, Aug. 1, 1990).

In 1988, 1989, and 1990, it imported 1.4, 1.5, and 1.2 million cubic meters of tropical wood (JATAN, Nov 1991).

Imports mangrove wood chips from Bintuni Bay in Irian Jaya, Indonesia to make computer paper. Marubeni provided half the money for the chip plant's construction; its partner is P.T. Bintuni Utama Mumi (Earth First! Journal, Aug. 1, 1990; SKEPHI, 1990, Selling Our Common Heritage, p. 33-34).

The Indonesian government temporarily suspended Marubeni's license for illegal cutting (Rainforest Action Network World Rainforest Report, Jan. 1991, p. 4).

Part of a consortium with a $800 million contract for the first phase of a $6 billion, 300-mile railroad that is to cross the Venezuelan Andes, form Caracas to the mouth of the Orinoco River. Other companies involved include Astaldi SPA and Cogefar-Impresit SPA (Engineering News Record, Mar. 23, 1992, p. 60).

Plans to replace 23,000 hectares of forest in southern Chile with pine and eucalyptus plantations for the Japanese chip market. Opposed by Chile's Committee of the Defense of Fauna and Flora (Earth Island Journal v.7,n.1, 1992, p. 3).

Caribou Pulp & Paper (Quesnel, B.C. and Hinton, Alberta) is owned by Champion International's Weldwood and Daishowa-Marubeni International (Champion International 1992 Form 10-K, p. 3).




1 S. Wacker Drive, 36th Floor, Chicago, IL 60606
telephone 312-750-0900

12th and Mathew Streets, Watsontown, PA 17777
telephone 717-538-5511

Mahogany, rosewood, and teak plywood (Directory of the Forest Products Industry, 1988).

Purchased by USX Corporation in 1984 (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 562).





Purchased Hollywood studio MCA in 1990 for $6 billion (Forbes, July 18, p. 72, 74).




MAXUS ENERGY (owned by Kerr-McGee)

717 N. Harwood St., Dallas, TX 75201
telephone 214-953-2000

2001 Ross Ave., Suite 1400, Dallas, TX 75201
telephone 214-979-5000

In 1987 Diamond Shamrock Chemicals changed its name to Maxus Energy. Since 1986, it has been a subsidiary of Occidental Petroleum. Agreed to a million-dollar out-of-court settlement for Diamond's Newark facility, for failing to eliminate dioxin as a by-product of its manufacturing of Agent Orange (Hazardous Materials Intelligence Report, Jan. 31, 1992, p. 4-5). See also Environment Reporter Current Developments (May 4, 1990, p. 14).

Maxus has the Intan and Widuri oil platforms off SW Sumatra, Indonesia (Oil & Gas Journal, June 12, 1989, p. 28), and is involved in northwest Java, Indonesia, oil drilling (Oil & Gas Journal, Oct. 16, 1989 and Oct. 23, 1989, p. 38).

Maxus took over Conoco's attempt to produce oil in the Yasuni National Park in Ecuador (World Rainforest Report, Jan-Mar 1992, p. 1; and Oct-Dec 1992, p. 10). Its planned road and pipeline will affect some 10,000 Waorani peoples (David Webster, Sep. 24, 1992, Econet cdp:gen.nativenet "The Activist 8#10, October 1992"). The road, south of the Napo River, will enter the Huarani Indian reserve and Yasuni National Park. A Maxus anthropologist tried to bribe a director of ONHAE, the Huarani Indian organization; drilling chemicals have spilled into the Napo, and Maxus is diverting the Aguarico River (Rainforest Action Network Action Alert, No. 84, May 1993).




10880 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 1600, Los Angeles CA 90024
telephone 213-474-6264

Run by Houston corporate raider Charles E. Hurwitz. Maxxam acquired Pacific Lumber in 1985 and Kaiser Aluminum in 1988. Scotia Pacific Holdings Company is a subsidiary (Wild Forest Review, Oct-Nov. 1995, p. 10).

In 1985, Maxxam took over Pacific Lumber for about $900 million. The takeover was partially financed with junk bonds through Drexel, Burnham, Lambert (Drexel Burnham's methods, and their employment of racketeer Michael Milken, led to DB's bankruptcy in 1990, and Milken's imprisonment). A New York Stock Exchange investigation of the takeover suggested insider trading, but no charges were filed. Maxxam avoids bankruptcy by liquidating the assets of the companies it buys -- in this case, 196,000 acres of the last of the redwood forests, owned by Pacific Lumber. Maxxam's CEO, Charles Hurwitz, also controlled the failed United Financial Group and United Savings Association of Texas; the FDIC has a $548 million outstanding claim against UFG. Hurwitz has proposed selling 4,500 acres of redwoods to the federal government for $600 million (Daly, Ned, "Ravaging the Redwoods: Charles Hurwitz, Michael Milken and the Cost of Greed," Multinational Monitor, Sept. 1994, p. 11-14). In August 1995, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation filed suit against Charles Hurwitz for $250 million in connection with the failure of the United Savings Association of Texas, which cost taxpayers more than $1.5 billion. According to the suit, Hurwitz liquidated funds from USAT, laundered them through Michael Milkin's firm Drexel Burnham Lambert, and used the money to finance the takeover of Pacific Lumber with junk bonds. Logging rates were tripled, assets were sold off, and the pension fund was liquidated to service the $750 million debt the takeover incurred. Deceptive financial reporting and corporate subsidiary shell games were played in order to cover up the arrangements (TAP-Resources, Aug. 10, 1995; Taxpayer Assets Project, PO Box 19367, Washington D.C. 20036). The Alliance for Sustainable Jobs and the Environment was inspired by the struggle against Maxxam, the owner of Pacific Lumber, which is cutting redwood trees, and Kaiser Aluminum, which replaced union Steelworkers with scabs ( December 1999 was the second anniversary of Julia Butterfly Hill's sitting 180 feet off the ground in a redwood tree in a grove which was not included in the $480 million state and federal government buyout of redwood trees held by Maxxam. For more information contact the Circle of Life Foundation, telephone (707)923-9522 or

Maxxam was on the Council on Economic Priorities' 1992 short list of worst environmental offenders, for its responsibility for 19 Superfund sites, its willful violations of occupational safety and health laws, and its releases of toxic chemicals (Mother Jones, Jan/Feb 1993; and the Earth Island Journal, Winter 1993, p. 20), and on its 1995 Worst Polluters List.

Maxxam's Largest Investor Scolds Hurwitz. Earth First! Mar-Apr. 1997, p. 15.

(California Public Employees' Retirement System (CALPERS), a $108 billion pension fund, owns $15 million in MAXXAM stock. Patricia Macht, spokewoman for CALPERS, warned MAXXAM of the public outcry and potential legislative backlash from failure to save the Headwaters redwood forest. Three school employee unions -- California School Employees Association, California Federation of Teachers, and Faculty Association of California Community Colleges -- have gone on record in suuport of the Clinton administration proposal to acquire 60,000 acres of mostly cutover MAXXAM timberland -- nearly ten times the proposed 7,500 acre Headwaters preserve).


Morose, Hugh. Logging, Landslides and Lawsuits: Headwaters Forest vs. Pacific Lumber. Earth First! Mar-Apr. 1997, p. 15.

(February 1997 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Marbled Murrelet v. Pacific Lumber, filed in 1992, affirmed F&WS ruling that habitat modification constitutes harm and harassment and an illegal taking of endangered species; discusses Clinton proposal to acquire the Headwaters forest; the state Sustained Yield Plan and federal Habitat Conservation Plan).


Judge dismisses fraud suit against Pacific Lumber, Associated Press, June 15, 2005. A judge has dismissed a lawsuit brought by Humboldt County prosecutors against Pacific Lumber that alleged the company knowingly submitted false data on landslides.

Humboldt County Superior Court Judge Richard L. Freeborn found Pacific Lumber Co. was immune from prosecution while lobbying during the Headwaters Forest negotiations of the late 1990s.

The ruling was praised by Pacific Lumber officials.

"Hopefully, we go forward and the DA goes in another direction," said company spokesman Chuck Center. "We're just trying to get trees into our mills."

But District Attorney Paul Gallegos said he found the ruling "disturbing."

"I think that the judge is wrong," Gallegos said.

He is considering filing an appeal. "If this is the way the law is, then I think we all deserve to hear it from the highest court in the state of California, to tell us that, 'Yes, guess what, you've got the right to lie when you're going through a government agency asking for a permit, even if you're doing it for the purpose of getting vast amounts of money.'"

In the suit, filed by Gallegos soon after he took office in 2002, prosecutors alleged the lumber company submitted faulty data to get access to timber on steep slopes it would otherwise have been unable to touch.

Soon after the suit was filed, a recall election bid was launched against Gallegos that was heavily funded by the lumber company. However, Gallegos survived the 2004 recall.

In his ruling, released Tuesday, Freeborn wrote that the chain of events leading to submission of the landslide study was not initiated by the lumber company, but by a request from the North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board.

The lumber company later filed a corrected version of the landslide report, but it was sent to a local agency. The suit alleged Pacific Lumber should have sent the report to the California Department of Forestry's main office in Sacramento.

The judge said the subject of the lawsuit was not whether the decision to allow logging was right or wrong. He said the company is immune from prosecution because of a legal argument based on free speech rights which makes a company immune from liability when lobbying the government to do something.

That doctrine doesn't hold if a company is pulling a sham, for instance, trying to delay a competitor from getting a license. But the judge noted there was no such situation in this case.


Suit Against Pacific Lumber Is Dismissed. Judge declares that the company was protected from civil liability as part of a deal with the state. Critics say the ruling rewards deceit. By Tim Reiterman, Los Angeles Times, June 16, 2005. A judge has thrown out a controversial lawsuit filed against Pacific Lumber Co. by Humboldt County prosecutors who alleged that the company fraudulently obtained state permission to cut many millions of dollars in timber on environmentally sensitive land.

In a ruling filed Tuesday, Humboldt County Superior Court Judge Richard L. Freeborn did not address the merits of the allegation. But he agreed with Pacific Lumber that there was no legal basis for the suit, because the company's conduct during the logging permit process was protected from civil action.

The ruling is the latest chapter in a dispute that has lasted for more than a decade over how much logging Pacific Lumber is entitled to do on its own land, thousands of acres of north coast forest that hold many of the last ancient redwood trees still in private hands.

Dist. Atty. Paul Gallegos said Wednesday that his office was seriously considering an appeal. The judge, he said, sent a signal that Pacific was "totally immune from lying. People out there are getting permits all over the place, thinking they have an obligation to tell the government the truth," Gallegos said. "This is not the law, in my opinion, and if am wrong, it is an outrage because it rewards deceit."

The lawsuit, which sought several hundred millions of dollars, divided the county and prompted an unsuccessful bid last year to recall Gallegos an effort largely bankrolled by Pacific Lumber. Filed in 2003, the suit pits residents who view the timber company as indispensable to the local economy against those who believe it is over-logging its vast holdings of valuable redwoods and Douglas fir, endangering fish and wildlife, and causing erosion that has damaged adjacent property.

Defeat would have been a major blow for Pacific Lumber, a 140-year-old firm that is financially troubled and has downsized and sold off assets since it was acquired in the mid-1980s by Maxxam Corp., a Texas firm controlled by financier Charles Hurwitz.

"We are pleased with this decision," said company spokesman Chuck Center. "We did not think it would take this long. We always thought it was frivolous and political as well."

The lawsuit accused the company of lying to state regulators during the historic 1999 deal that created the Headwaters Forest Preserve. As part of the more than $400-million transaction, Pacific Lumber transferred 7,000 acres of virgin timber to the federal and state governments and agreed to logging restrictions on its remaining 200,000 acres to protect wildlife habitat.

The suit contended that Pacific gave state agencies false information and data understating the landslide risks of its future logging plans then delayed the submission of correct information. The alleged fraud, the lawsuit said, resulted in extensive logging of many thousands of trees on unstable slopes, with damage to streams and watersheds. The suit sought $2,500 per tree.

For the last two years, the company has been seeking dismissal of the suit. Freeborn sided with its contention that, even if it had made misrepresentations to get logging plan approvals, the firm was protected from civil liability.

The judge concluded that Pacific Lumber's interaction with state officials was a quasi-judicial matter that insulated the company from the lawsuit. And he declared that the company's lobbying of state regulators to be free speech protected by the 1st Amendment.

Mark Lovelace, head of the Humboldt Watershed Council, which has opposed Pacific Lumber logging of fragile watersheds, said of the decision, "It is frustrating that a corporation is protected from lying when it harms the public."

Freeborn invited the company to submit a judgment for him to sign and said the county would be compelled to pay the company's legal costs. Edgar Washburn, a San Francisco attorney representing the company, said the costs are substantial but have not been tallied.

The State Water Resources Control Board is scheduled to meet today in Sacramento to decide whether to withdraw timber harvest permits for two watersheds that Pacific Lumber says are essential to the company's survival.

The company has threatened to lay off employees and file for bankruptcy if it does not get permission to log the watersheds, which residents say have filled with silt from logging operations.

Company officials say the damage is mainly a result of logging by former owners of Pacific Lumber and is being repaired.


Timber Firm Ordered Cover-Up, Ex-Official Says. By Tim Reiterman. Los Angeles Times, April 7, 2006

A former official of the North Coast timber giant Pacific Lumber Co. contends in a lawsuit that the company's president ordered him to conceal the presence of underground contaminants to avoid a costly cleanup and to expedite construction of sawmill facilities in Humboldt County.

A Pacific Lumber spokesman said the allegations were not true and added that the plaintiff's contention that he had been fired also was not true.

Humboldt County Dist. Atty. Paul Gallegos said Thursday that his office was examining the charges.

In a wrongful-termination suit filed last month, Jimmy Dan Cook said that, as the company's business and community development director, he was responsible for obtaining environmental permits for a new $30-million sawmill and a runoff-retention pond in Scotia.

Cook alleged that excavations for the pond in the spring of 2004 uncovered waste materials, including asbestos, oily shop residue, barrels with unknown contents, garbage and solid wood waste.

When he informed company President Robert Manne and recommended notifying state water quality officials, Cook's suit says he was told "to not report the contamination and to keep the information in-house."

Despite his objections, Cook said the unlined pond was constructed on the contaminated site. He said he believes that it has "resulted in dangerously polluted water leaching and/or overflowing into the Eel River," which supplies water to Scotia and is a fishery.

When contacted by the Los Angeles Times about the lawsuit Thursday, a state water quality official said her agency would look into the allegations to determine whether there was evidence of pollution. Gallegos declined to comment on his investigation.

"These allegations are not correct," said Pacific Lumber spokesman Chuck Center.

Citing company policy, Center would not discuss the litigation, but he denied that Cook had been fired and said he was on disability.

Since the early 1990s, Pacific Lumber has been fighting with state water quality regulators and environmentalists over timber-cutting practices that critics say threaten some of the last ancient redwood stands on Earth, as well as damaging streams and wildlife habitat.

Six years ago, the state and federal governments made a $480-million deal to protect 7,500 acres of the company's land in the new Headwaters Preserve.

But Pacific Lumber has contended that environmental restrictions elsewhere on its property have prevented it from cutting enough timber to make a profit, while critics have said the company created its own problems by liquidating assets and improperly structuring its debt.

Cook, 58, a lifetime Humboldt County resident, worked for the county public works department and another timber concern before joining Pacific Lumber in 1995, his attorney said.

The suit said Cook went on disability for stress and depression in August 2004 after "repeated verbal abuse and threats from Manne because of his resistance to follow orders he believed to be unlawful."

In a phone interview, Cook's attorney, Zachary Zwerdling, said there were witnesses at management meetings but declined to name them.

Zwerdling said the company removed some of the asbestos. But he said Cook estimated that a cleanup of all the contamination at the site would have cost $1 million to $4 million.

The attorney said Cook also proposed a less costly evaluation of the extent of contamination, but company officials turned down his request because they wanted construction to move ahead to meet a July 2004 deadline for opening the new sawmill.

The mill was designed to handle smaller logs as the company shifted from cutting increasingly scarce big trees on its property.

Cook "did everything he could within the parameters of his job to address the problem," Zwerdling said. "He could not physically or psychologically continue with his job and had to go on disability."

Although he has not received a termination notice, Cook maintains that he was, in effect, fired when his office was cleaned out in April 2005 and his computer was taken away. The suit seeks unspecified monetary damages.

Catherine Kuhlman, executive officer of the North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board, said the agency, as the first steps in its investigation, would do some water monitoring in nearby communities and would require Pacific Lumber to provide detailed information on construction of the pond.


More information on MAXXAM

Harris, David. 1995. The Last Stand: The War Between Wall Street And Main Street Over California's Ancient Redwoods. New York: Times Books.



MAYO FOREST PRODUCTS see Mitsubishi (Canada)




3-1 Shinchi, Fuchu-cho, Aki-gun, Hiroshima 730-91 Japan
telephone 011-81-82-282-1111

1 Mazda Dr., Flat Rock MI 48134
telephone 313-782-7800

Ford bought 25 percent of Mazda (then Toyo Kogyo) in 1979 (Hoover's 1992 p. 235).

A joint venture between Indo Mobil Group, Mazda, Minolta, and Sumitomo to make and assemble Mazda cars in Indonesia was announced in 1990 (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992, p. 237).




New Zealand

Construction contractor (along with Spie Capag) for a $125 million oil platform and 105-mile pipeline from the southern highlands to the Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea) (Engineering News Record, June 10, 1991, p. 29).




1010 Common Street, New Orleans LA 70112-2400
telephone 504-587-5400

McDermott International has built ten offshore oil and gas platforms in Alaska (Engineering News Record, May 18, 1992, p. 35).

McDermott International, Marathon, and Mitsui are performing a feasibility study for the $8 to $10 billion development of the Piltun-Astoskoye and Lunskoye offshore oil and gas fields on the continental shelf off Sakhalin Island; the fields have an estimated 750 million barrels of oil and 14 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. McDermott would design and construct the project; Marathon would manage the reservior and field operations; and Mitsui would be responsible for obtaining financing. The M/M/M Consortium, as it is being called, signed an agreement with the Russian government in March 1992; the companies were chosen in part because of their proposed environmental plan for the pristine area, Marathon spokesman Michael Dixon said (Enginerring News Record, May 18, 1992, p. 35).








Third-largest commercial airplane manufacturer, behind Boeing and Airbus, and a major U.S. military contractor. Cut its workforce by 40 percent, from 132,000 in 1990 to 75,000 in 1993 (article by Ronald Yates in the Chicago Tribune, also printed in the Seattle Times, Sept. 19, 1993, p. D10).

The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on McDonnell Douglas in 1993 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).

 Merger with Boeing.



MCI WorldCom, Inc.

500 Clinton Center Drive, Clinton MS 39056

telephone (601) 460-5600 fax (601) 974-8350

Local, long distance and Internet telecommunications services through fiber optic cable, digital microwave and satellite stations.

By the early 1990s, MCI was the second-largest long distance telephone company in the U.S. (after AT&T). MCI began in the 1960s and 1970s as AT&T's monopoly was broken by federal court. In 1992, MCI received a $558 million contract with the Federal Aviation Administration to supply air traffic control communications. MCI owned Telecom USA and Western Union International, and has minority interests in AAP Communications (Australia) and Clear Communications (New Zealand), and offices in 54 countries (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 393).

When Mexico's telephone market is opened to competition in 1996, MCI plans to own 45 percent of a billion-dollar joint fiber optics venture with Grupo Financiero Banamex-Accival (Banacci). The system is projected to be the first integrated North American telecommunications network, with service in Mexico, the U.S., and Canada (Seattle Times, Jan. 26, 1993, p. D2).

MCI WorldCom and Sprint announced a $129 billion merger in October 1999.



MDM see Mining Drilling & Milling



MEIWA TRADING see Mitsubishi (Indonesia)




One Mellon Bank Center, Pittsburgh PA 15258
telephone 412-234-5000

Major commercial bank with $29 billion in assets (92 percent in the U.S., most of the rest in Canada, through Royal Trustco, and in Europe, through Pareto Partners). Has 416 U.S. banking branches in 13 states. Historical Mellon investments included Alcoa, Westinghouse, Bethlehem Steel, Pittsburgh Coal, Koppers, Carborundum, and Gulf Oil. Andrew Mellon was Secretary of the Treasury under Presidents Harding, Collidge, and Hoover (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 399).

For background information:

Hersh, Burton. The Mellon Family: a Fortune in History. (New York: William Morrow, 1978).

Koskoff, David E. The Mellons: the Chronicle of America's Richest Family (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1978).




Pahang, Malaysia

One of the top ten exporters of plywood from Malaysia in 1991 (Asian Timber, April 1992, p. 8).




Pahang, Malaysia

One of the top ten exporters of plywood from Malaysia in 1991 (Asian Timber, April 1992, p. 8).



MERCEDES-BENZ see Daimler-Benz




Rahway New Jersey
telephone 908-594-4000

Pharmaceutical giant founded in 1887. Its drugs include Cancidas, Cosopt, Cozaar, Crixivan, Emend, Fosamax, Hyzaar, Invanz, Maxalt, Propecia, Proscar, Singulair, Vioxx, Zocor.

"On Sept. 30, Merck withdrew the arthritis drug Vioxx from the market after one of the drugmaker's studies found the drug doubled the risk of heart attack and stroke after long-term use. For at least three years, prominent doctors had been raising concerns about a potential heart risk, but Merck had insisted Vioxx, which generated $2.5 billion per year, was safe. Since it was approved in 1999, Vioxx was taken by 20 million patients, and some estimates say it may have caused more than 100,000 heart attacks and strokes. As first reported on, Merck never did a big study to prove Vioxx didn't harm the heart--despite what many percieved as promises to do so. Merck shareholders have been in pain since with the stock price was slashed by a third." (The Year In Scandals, by Leah Hoffmann and Lacey Rose, Forbes, Dec 15, 2004).

"Over a period of five years, pharmaceutical giant Merck & Co. spent about $500 million promoting its arthritis drug Vioxx to consumers through a marketing campaign spearheaded by TV commercials featuring Olympic skater Dorothy Hamill. It recently became clear that the ad campaign and Merck were skating on thin ice. On September 30 Merck announced that it was withdrawing Vioxx from the market because of evidence that the drug created an elevated risk of heart attack and stroke. Although the company acted voluntarily, it has experienced a firestorm of criticism over mounting evidence that it knew of the risks for years and kept on selling the drug, which reached $2.5 billion in sales last year. Prior to the recall, some 20 million people took Vioxx, and it is now estimated that tens of thousands of them may have died of side effects known to the company. Merck could be responsible for more deaths than any other company in business history. Apart from questions of gross negligence, the Vioxx scandal also raises issues about the efficacy of the system of federal regulation of new drugs and the out-of-control practice of marketing risky pharmaceuticals directly to consumers. It also is a poignant reminder of the importance of product liability litigation--Merck is facing billions of dollars in potential liability--despite the repeated calls by business apologists for tort "reform." (Modern-day Snake Oil? The Vioxx Scandal and the Crisis of Drug Safety, By Philip Mattera, Corporate Research E-Letter No. 50, December 2004).





Indonesia has indicated interest in building its first copper smelter at Gresik, Java; Mitsui and Metallgesellschaft are contenders for a joint venture (Engineering and Mining Journal, June 1991, p. 25).




23 Place des Carmes, 63040 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex, France
telephone 011-33-73-30-42-21

2 Patewood Dr., Greenville, SC 29615
telephone 803-234-5000 or 803-458-5000

Founded in the 19th century; has 70 plants, mostly in Europe, and plantations in Brazil, the Ivory Coast, and Nigeria. Bought Uniroyal Goodrich in 1989 (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1992, p. 236).




One Microsoft Way, Redmond WA 98052
telephone 206-882-8080

Monopoly in personal computer software development, including the MS-DOS and Windows programs. Founder Bill Gates is the world's richest man, with more wealth than the bottom half of the U.S. population combined. In 1991, Microsoft had plants in the U.S. and Ireland, and operations in 26 countries; half its sales were outside the U.S. (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 406).

Washington State prison labor: Packaging corporation Exmark, a subsidiary of PC Services, packages products for Microsoft, Costco, Starbucks, and JanSport at the Twin Rivers Corrections Center in Washington State. Exmark also stuffs envelopes for mass mailings for corporations like US West. Exmark pays prisoners the minimum wage, but the prison deducts 20 percent for "the cost of corrections", another 10 percent as a "mandatory savings account", another five percent for a state-administered victom's compensation fund, and the usual deductions for income tax, social security, and Medicare tax. The prison system can deduct up to another 20 percent to pay court-ordered restitution, court costs, and other debts -- up to 80 percent of the prisoners' wages can be deducted by law. Private companies operating within Washington's prisons do not have to pay health or retirement benefits or workers compensation. Exmark pays the state $1 per month for factory and warehouse space. In 1993 the state legislature mandated the expansion of prisoners in its "Free Venture Industries." In 1994, the state built a 56,000 square foot "industries building" adjacent to the state reformatory, and has so far attracted Elliott Bay Metal Fabrication, which makes microbrew vats and fishing equipment; A&I Mfg., which makes window blinds and wire shelving; and Redwood Outdoors Inc., which makes clothing for Eddie Bauer, Helly-Hanson, and Brooks. (Source: Pens, Dan. Microsoft "Outcells" Competition: A Captive Labor Force at Washington's Twin Rivers Corrections Center. Z Magazine, May 1996, p. 47-49. Dan Pens is a prisoner, and co-editor of Prison Legal News, PO Box 1684, Lake Worth FL 33460).




Joint venture in Hawaii with Campbell Estate, Hawaii Electric Industries, Ormat, and True Geothermal.





One of the largest chipboard manufacturers in Asia. Almost half of its output goes to Singapore, Hongkong, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, Australia, South Korea, and the U.S. (Asian Timber, May 1992, p. 7).




Toronto, Canada

The San Andreas mine in Honduras is an open pit heap leach operation; the mine was begun in the 16th century. Many companies are involved: Asarco; Gold Mines of America; Fisher-Watt Gold Co; Madeline Mines Ltd; and Milner Consolidated; Kennecott has an 80 percent interest (Engineering & Mining Journal, Feb. 1992, p. 7).




MIM Plaza, 410 Ann St., Brisbane, Q.4000, Australia
telephone 07 833 8000

Processing magnesite from the Kunwarara, Australia deposit with Queensland Metals (Engineering & Mining Journal, Feb. 1992, p. 11).

Copper mines in Chile at El Teniente and the Chucuicamata mines. (Engineering & Mining Journal, Jan. 1992, p. 14).

Tick Hill gold mine in northwest Queensland is run by MIM subsidiary Carpenteria Gold Pty Ltd. (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p. 178).

MIM's Highlands Gold is a partner in the Porgera mine in Papua New Guinea.



"California regulators gave final approval yesterday to what would be the nation's largest garbage dump, located in the desert east of Los Angeles. The decision ends a 10-year approval process for the Eagle Mountain Landfill, which has 680 million tons of capacity. The project began its journey in 1989 but was stalled by lawsuits claiming it would damage the fragile desert habitat and pollute nearby Joshua Tree National Park. The facility will be in an abandoned open pit formerly mined for iron and should be ready to accept trash by the end of 2001, according to owner Mine Reclamation Corp. The company says the dump will be able to accommodate 20,000 tons of trash annually for 50 years. The trash will be delivered in enclosed containers carried by train." (Greenwire, Dec. 16, 1999, citing Wall Street Journal, Dec. 16, and Los Angeles Times, Dec. 16).

"A farming couple sued federal agencies Monday for approving a 2,200-acre dump on the border of Joshua Tree National Park, arguing that the agencies failed to protect the desert preserve, its groundwater and its wildlife. The proposed Eagle Mountain Landfill, which would be built in an abandoned iron ore mine, could accept up to 20,000 tons of trash a day - enough to fill 375 rail cars. Donna and Larry Charpied, who farm jojoba near the proposed landfill, argue that the dump could blow dust and garbage into the park, attract crows that could feed on threatened desert tortoises, and contaminate groundwater supplies." (Tom Verdin, Farmers Sue Over Joshua Tree Dump, Associated Press, Dec. 20, 1999).



The Mystic gold mine west of Sun City, Arizona is a joint venture between Fisher-Watt and MDM (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p. 179).




3M Center, St. Paul MN 55144
telephone 612-733-1110

Has 88 plants in 28 US states and 41 countries. Started in 1902 to sell corundum for grinding wheels. Its sales now come from its industrial and electronic (35 percent), information and imaging (28 percent), life sciences (medical equipment and supplies)(22 percent), and commercial and consumer sectors (15 percent) (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992).

Every day half of the world's people use one of 3M's 50,000 products (Everybody's Business, 1990). Foreign sales account for 48 percent of the 1990 total of $13 billion (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992).

One of the earliest "green" corporations, with its "Pollution Prevention Pays" (3P) program begun in 1975. For another view, see Jim Donahue's "Mischief, Misdeeds, & Mendacity: The Real 3M," in the Multinational Monitor (May 1991, p. 29-31). In 1988, 3M was the 13th leading US toxics polluter. In 1989, 3M received the largest fine ever assessed by the state of Minnesota ($1.5 million), at its Chemolite facility, for zinc, cadmium, and lead releases). 3M was fined $1.4 million in 1989 for importing hazardous chemicals without notifying the EPA; an administrative judge reduced the fine to $112,000. 3M has also been fined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. OSHA cited 3M 154 times between 1980 and 1990 (even though John Pendergrass, a former 3M official, headed OSHA between 1987 and 1989) (see Donahue, 1991).

3M is a member of the National Wildlife Federation's Corporate Conservation Council.

The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on 3M in 1991-92 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).




3-13, 2-chrome, Azuchi-machi, Chuo-ku, Osaka 541 Japan
telephone 011-81-6-271-2251

101 Williams Dr., Ramsey NJ 07446
telephone 201-825-4000

Facilities in Brazil and Malaysia (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992, p. 237).

A joint venture between Indo Mobil Group, Mazda, Minolta, and Sumitomo to make and assemble Mazda cars in Indonesia was announced in 1990 (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992, p. 237).



MINORCO see Anglo American



MISSION POWER ENGINEERING CO. see Southern California Edison




6-3 Marunouchi 2-chrome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-86, Japan
telephone 011-81-3-3210-2121 fax. 011-81-3287-1312

Mitsubishi International, 520 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10022
telephone 212-605-2000 or 212-605-2543 (lumber dept.)

With 160 companies, Mitsubishi is one of Japan's largest keiretsus (industrial companies). Its main divisions are Mitsubishi Bank, Mitsubishi Corporation (trading), and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries; other companies include Mitsubishi Electric, Asahi Glass (owns 28 percent), Kirin Brewery (19 percent), Meiji Life Insurance, Nikon (27 percent), Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha (shipping line; owns 25 percent), Arsitech Chemical (bought 74 percent in 1974), Volvo (bought a third in 1991) and Tokio Marine and Fire Insurance (24 percent). Founded in 1870. Forced to split into 139 companies after World war II; regrouped after occupation. Now Japan's largest producer of ships, power plants, aircraft, and heavy machinery, and its largest importer of oil. Had 1990 sales of 18,523 yen in metals (27 percent), machinery/information systems & services), fuels (20 percent), food (12 percent), and chemicals (8 percent). Had a 1990 year-end debt ratio of 84 percent (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1992, p. 238). See also The Greenpeace Book of Greenwash (1992).

Involved in negotiations regarding geothermal development in Hawaii's Puna rainforest (Earth First! Journal, Aug. 1, 1990, p. 10). See the entry for True Geothermal.

A rare metal mine of Mitsubishi's in Malaysia uses thorium hydroxide and has been associated with local peoples' cancer cases (World Rainforest Report, Jan. 1991, p. 4).

MGC Resources Australia (Mitsubishi Gas Chemical) began a joint venture in 1991 with Mount Isa Mines, on Queensland Coalbed Methane Project, which covers 14,000 square kilometers (Mining Magazine, July 1991, p. 27).

Mitsubishi and Timber

Mitsubishi's role in the timber trade made it the prime target of the 1990 World Rainforest Week, and the Rainforest Action Network has since called for the boycott of Mitsubishi products (Rainforest Action Network Action Alert, No. 52, Sept. 1990; No. 79, December 1992).

In 1988, 1989, and 1990, Mitsubishi imported 1.3, 1.5, and 1.3 million cubic meters of tropical wood (JATAN, Nov 1991). Mitsubishi claims it reduced its importation of Malaysian wood from 444,000 cubic meters in 1987 to 210,000 cubic meters in 1991 (Boycott Action News, Summer 1992, p. 5). Many believe Mitsubishi (and other Japanese companies) are responding to Malaysian restrictions by shifting their operations to Brazil; for example, Mitsubishi owns half of Eidai do Brasil Madeiras, the largest timber company in the Brazilian Amazon (Multinational Monitor, Jan/Feb. 1994, p. 39, citing report by Rainforest Action Network).

The following list of Mitsubishi timber operations has been compiled from Rainforest Action Network Action Alert, No. 79, December 1992; Native Forest News, No. 2, 1993, citing RAN; or the other sources indicated:


Mitsubishi is part-owner of the Alaska Pulp Corporation, which has a subsidized monopoly on the Tongass National Forest and a mill in Sitka (Ran Action Alert, No. 94, Mar. 1994).


Mitsubishi and North Forest Products joint venture in northeast Tasmania to plant 23,000 hectares in eucalyptus. Mitsubishi also owns Tas Forest Holding in Melbourne (Paper Asia, Jan. 1996, p. 6).


Mitsubishi has been involved in a joint venture called Howan Wood Industries since 1975; it is possibly the largest logging operation in Bolivia.


Extensive logging of the Peruvian-Colombian border for plywood and hardwood paneling; there are also paper mills. Mitsubishi owns half of Eidai do Brasil Madeiras, the largest timber company in the Brazilian Amazon (Multinational Monitor, Jan/Feb. 1994, p. 39, citing Rainforest Action Network report).

Canada (Alberta)

Mitsubishi and three Japanese partners have a concession of over seven million hectares of virgin boreal forest, which they intend to cut for pulp. Alberta-Pacific Forest Industries is a Mitsubishi-backed pulp mill on the Athabasca River in Alberta, Canada (Taiga-News: Newsletter on Boreal Forests, No. 5, March 1992, p. 5). See entry Alberta-Pacific Forest Industries.

Canada (British Columbia)

Mitsubishi owns 100 percent of Crestbrook Industries (pulp and paper); 40 percent of Mayo Forest Products; and 45 percent of the Canadian Chopstick Manufacturing Co. (CCMC) at Fort Nelson. CCMC has a 20-year license to cut trees, and produces seven to eight million chopsticks per day. Mitsubishi is apparently trying to bring Louisiana-Pacific to the area to use the coniferous trees that CCMC wastes (see RAN report by Michael Marx; and Ran Action Alert, No. 94, Mar. 1994).


Mitsubishi subsidiary Astillas Exportaciones is sending old growth forest wood chips to Japan; Mitsubishi owns 70 percent of the Forestalas Colarra mill, and has eucalyptus plantation.


Early reports of mining exploration in the Andean tropical forest.


Number one exporter of plywood from Indonesia to Japan, and is involved with Barito Pacific, Indonesia's largest timber group, in Moluccas.

Mitsubishi has a 159,000-acre concession and plywood operation at Sungai Kahayan, central Kalimantan, Indonesia (SKEPHI, 1990, Selling Our Common Heritage).


Since 1984 Mitsubishi has had a 60 percent stake in Daiya Malaysia, which logs and exports from its 90,000-hectare concession in the Bintulu District. Mitsubishi also owns two-thirds of Meiwa Trading, which is involved in two plywood mills and which is a large trader in Sarawak and Sanah.


Large investment in Agusan Wood Industries, which has produced plywood since 1956.

Papua New Guinea

Mitsubishi front company United Timber was found guilty by Barnett Commission of hiding millions in profits (World Rainforest Report, No. 24).


Mitsubishi and nine other Japanese companies plan a $1.4 billion forestry project. Mitsubishi already exports Siberian silver fir to Japan.

Bibliography on Mitsubishi:

Marx, Michael. Packet on Mitsubishi. Rainforest Action Network, San Francisco.

Marx, Michael. Savage Economics: The Environmental Crimes of Mitsubishi. Wild Forest Review, Nov. 1994, p. 20-22.

Rainforest Action Network. Mitsubishi Boycott Builds with Haiku Project. Action Alert, Feb. 1996, No. 117.

SKEPHI. Selling Our Common Heritage. 1990.

Boycott Quarterly. Mitsubishi Begins to Bend Under Boycott. Boycott Quarterly, Spring 1996, 3(3): 35.




Mitsui Bussan Kabushiki Kaisha
2-1, Ohtemachi 1-chrome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan
telephone 011-81-3-3285-1111 fax. 011-81-3-3285-9800

Mitsui & Co., U.S.A.
200 Park Ave., 38th Floor, New York, NY 10166
telephone 212-878-4000

Mitsui Comtek
Los Angeles
telephone 213-489-2112

Mitsui and Co. USA
1001 Fourth Ave. # 2201, Seattle, WA 98154
telephone 206-223-5604

Mitsui & Company (trading), Mitsui Taiyo Kobe Bank, and 511 other companies, joined in one of the world's largest keiretsu (industrial groups). Mitsui evolved from the zaibatsu (family-run conglomerate) of the Mitsui family, which has run government-aided activities since the 16th and 17th centuries (see John G. Roberts, Mitsui: Three Centuries of Japanese Business). After World War II, Mitsui was broken by the occupation forces into 180 companies, but the group reformed. Mitsui now controls or is closely affiliated with Hokkaido Colliery & Steamship, Japan Steel Works, Mitsui Real Estate Development, Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals, Mitsui Mining, Mitsui O.S.K. Lines (shipping), Oji Paper, Mutual Life Insurance Co., Trust and Banking Co., Toshiba, Mitsukoshi (department stores), Nippon Flour Mills, Onoda Cement, Sanki Engineering, Taisho Marine & Fire Insurance, and Toyota. In 1974 Mitsui bought half of AMAX's aluminum operations. Mitsui had sales in 1990 of $124 billion in energy (21 percent), machinery (19 percent), nonferrous metals (16 percent), iron and steel (11 percent), chemicals (10 percent), and food (11 percent); its 1990 year-end debt ratio was very high, at 80 percent. All from Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1992.

Mitsui is involved in the tropical timber trade, including in Sarawak, Malaysia. In 1988, 1989, and 1990, it imported 694,123, 826,028, and 719,225 cubic meters of tropical wood (JATAN, Nov. 1991).

With Foster-Wheeler and JGC, Mitsui plans to construct an oil refinery in Balongan, western Java, Indonesia (Oil & Gas Journal, Oct. 23, 1989, p. 38).

Indonesia has indicated interest in building its first copper smelter at Gresik, Java; Mitsui and Metallgesellschaft are contenders for a joint venture (Engineering and Mining Journal, June 1991, p. 25).

Mitsui OSK Lines Ltd. owns half of Burmah Oil's LNG transport project, which carries natural gas from Indonesia to Japan (Oil & Gas Journal, May 22, 1989).

Mitsui and Co. U.S.A. imports wood from Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, and owns the PorTac mill in Tacoma, Wash.

Mitsui owns half of California developer Birtcher Frank Properties, which bought Kent, Washington property from Union Pacific Realty. Birtcher official Ted Knapp used to work for UP (Seattle Times, Feb. 12, 1992).

Mitsui and Oji Paper have a 100,000-hectare concession and sawtimber operation at Selar Panjang, Sumatra, Indonesia (SKEPHI, 1990, Selling Our Common Heritage).

Mitsui Overseas Forestry has a 110,000-acre concession and plywood and sawtimber operations at Batanghari, Sumatra, Indonesia (SKEPHI, 1990, Selling Our Common Heritage).

Mitsui and Nippon Paper agreed to a 30,000 hectare eucalyptus plantation joint venture in western Autralia and Victoria; wood chips would be exported to Japan (Paper Asia, Jan. 1996, p. 6).

McDermott International, Marathon, and Mitsui are performing a feasibility study for the $8 to $10 billion development of the Piltun-Astoskoye and Lunskoye offshore oil and gas fields on the continental shelf off Sakhalin Island; the fields have an estimated 750 million barrels of oil and 14 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. McDermott would design and construct the project; Marathon would manage the reservoir and field operations; and Mitsui would be responsible for obtaining financing. The M/M/M Consortium, as it is being called, signed an agreement with the Russian government in March 1992; the companies were chosen in part because of their proposed environmental plan for the pristine area, Marathon spokesman Michael Dixon said (Engineering News Record, May 18, 1992, p. 35).

See also the entry for Portac (Mitsui's subsidiary for exporting wood from Washington State).




Terengganu, Malaysia

One of the top ten exporters of sawtimber from Malaysia in 1991 (Asian Timber, April 1992, p. 8).




MLL 33 Company, Khukhan Aroonswat, Surin Thanapong Construction, and Udon Supply are named as log importing companies that will benefit from the opening of a new border pass allowing Cambodian timber to be brought into Thailand. The pass is in the Chong Sangam area of the Khukhan District, which is a pristine forest covering both sides of the Cambodian-Thai border; the Thai side of the pass is within the Huay Sala Wildlife reserve (Asian Timber, July 1992, p. 7, citing the Bangkok Post).




150 East 42nd St., New York, NY 10017
telephone 212-883-4242

Once part of Rockefeller's Standard Oil monopoly (broken up by court order in 1911). Mobil, once known as Socony (Standard Oil of New York) never had its own oil wells; in the 1930s, it joined with Exxon (then Jersey Standard) in the Stanvac venture to drill and refine oil in Indomesia and sell it in 50 countries. Stanvac was also declared a monopoly, and ordered broken in 1962. Socony then bought a ten percent share of Aramco (Arabian American Oil Company) in Saudi Arabia. Mobil still obtains most of its oil from foreign countries (Everybody's Business, 1990).

Mobil acquired Montgomery Ward in the 1970s, sold it in 1988 (Everybody's Business, 1990).

The Whole World Oil Directory 1991 (p. 147-148) shows offices in London England (for North Sea operations), Hamburg Germany, Vienna Austria, The Hague and Rotterdam Netherlands, Calgary Alberta Canada, Santiago Chile, Mexico City, Sao Paulo Brazil, Madrid Spain, Paris France, Accra Ghana, Athens Greece, Monrovia Liberia, Blantyre Malawi, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, Helsink Finland, Lisbon Portugal, Khartoum Sudan, Basel Switzerland, Bangkok Thailand, Harare Zimbabwe, and Tokyo Japan.


Precincom is a Mobil subsidiary in Quito Ecuadaor (Whole World Oil Directory 1991 (p. 153).


Mobil Exploration and Producing Peru, Inc. (Lima Peru) has a ten million acre Huallaga Basin agreement (1989) (Oil & Gas Journal, July 7, 1989, p. 24; Sept. 25, 1989, p. 49; and Oct. 9, 1989, p. 32, 35). Has a $107 million exploration project (Time, Feb. 12, 1990, p. 53). Mobil is in Peru's central northern rainforest (Oil & Gas Journal, June 26, 1989, p. 31 and July 3, 1989, p. 28). Peruvian oil searches were suspended after a surveying camp was destroyed by "rebels" (Seattle Times, Dec. 13, 1990, p. A2).

Since the 1960s Mobil has done drilling at the Aguaytia natural gas field in the central rainforest and in the Santiago Basin of Peru (Oil & Gas Journal, May 15, 1989).

"Mobil Corp.'s discovery of natural gas in Peru's Candamo Valley "has heightened the tension in a national debate as to whether this coveted valley should be declared a national park or remain in private hands for hydrocarbon development," the Christian Science Monitor reports. Mobil has until the end of February [2000] to determine whether it will release its claim on "one of the most unspoiled and biodiverse valleys in the Amazon." A consortium of Mobil, Exxon and Elf entered the isolated 350,000-acre valley, often called "the last jungle without humans," in 1996 to look for hydrocarbons. On Sept. 18, the government announced that Mobil may have found as much as 1.3 trillion to 2 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in the valley. Daniel Winitzky, who made a television documentary about Candamo: "It's not the worst news. It's gas and not petroleum, the lesser of two evils. But it's not the best news either, which would have been that they found nothing." The valley -- home to jaguars, pumas, tapirs and anaconda -- lacks the protection of national park status. Conservationists say this is because of Mobil's interest in exploring the area. So far environmental damage has been minimal, but that could change if Mobil decides to move ahead with the development phase." (Catherine Elton, Amazon: Mobil Natural Gas Find Heightens Environmental Debate, Greenwire, Sept. 30, 1999).

Indonesia: See also Pertamina.

Exploratory oil drilling contracts with Indonesia were signed in 1989 (Oil & Gas Journal, Aug. 7, 1989, p. 3).

Papua New Guinea

Drilling northwest of Chevron's Iagifu-Hedina sites in the southern highlands of Papua New Guinea. Mobil began drilling in Papua New Guinea as Island Exploration Co., then as Australasian Petroleum (Oil & Gas Journal, Aug. 28, 1989, p. 28).


In 1958, Shell discovered petroleum near the Niger River delta in Nigeria; since then, Shell has extracted $30 billion worth of oil and natural gas. Shell, Mobil, Chevron, Texaco, and other oil companies generate 80 percent of Nigeria's annual revenue. Since 1993, the local Ogoni people have been suppressed; 20 Ogoni towns have been destroyed, 1,800 people killed, and 50,000 left homeless. The Nigerian government's hanged Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other Ogoni peoples activists on November 10, 1995. Shell has been condemned for its role; over 300 people protested at Shell's New York headquarters on November 13, 1995. A few days after the execution, Shell announced a new $4 billion Nigerian natural gas plan; ELF, and Agit are also involved. (Interview with Human Rights Watch on National Public Radio on Nov. 16; RAN Action Alert, No. 115, Dec. 1995).




The Tekoa Yma and Tekoa Kapi'I Yvate are two Mbya Guarani indigenous communities that have lived in the subtropical forest of what is now Argentina's Misiones Province for the last 3200 years. UNESCO has designated a a Yaboti Biosphere Reserve in the area.

In 1999, Mocona Forest S.A., began building roads and cutting trees in the Mbya's 5000 hectare area. The company has offered the Mbya 200 hectares.

World Rainforest Movement, Argentina: A Forestry Company Invades Guarani Community Lands in Misiones

World Rainforest Movement, May 2002 alert

For more information contact the Environment Defense Foundation (FUNAM)




Korsnas, MoDo, and Stora reached a settlement on winter graing rights for reindeer with five Lapp villages in Sweden; the villages had taken legal action after the three companies denied access to company forests; the agreement calls for winter grazing to be avaliable to a reduced number of reindeer (PPI: Pulp & Paper International, July 1992, p. 13).




Japanese company that, in 1968, began a joint venture enterprise with the Indonesian-state-owned timber corporation Perhutani. Was to cut 60,000 cubic meters of timber a year; ended up exporting twice that the first year (SKEPHI, 1990, Selling Our Common Heritage, p. 33).




Washington, DC

Founded in 1988 by John Mongoven, who was deputy director of communications for the Republican National Committee from 1978 to 1981, and who worked for Nestle to defend its sales of infant formula. MBD describes itself as "specializing in the resolution of public policy conflicts between corporations and activist groups"; this is done in part by "maintain[ing] extensive files on organizations and their leadership" that "would affect the client's interest adversely". MBD's clients have included Monsanto and Philip Morris/Kraft General Foods (in their successful attempts to get bovine growth hormone approved by the FDA) (Joel Bleifuss's articles in In These Times, Sept. 6, Sept. 20, Oct. 4, 1993, excerpted in Utne Reader, Jan-Feb. 1994, p. 77-78).




Monsanto was a major producer of Agent Orange herbicides in the 1950s and 1960s; more than a hundred million pounds were used to defoliate Vietnam during the U.S. war.

Monsanto also maufactured PCBs.

More than 500 people, including 145 Monsanto employees, died in April 1947 when Monsanto's Texas City styrene plant burned after a ship containing ammonium nitrate exploded.

Monsanto is a member of the National Wildlife Federation's Corporate Conservation Council.

Monsanto manufactures glyphosate in Louisiana, North Carolina, Australia, Belgium, and Brazil; it plans to build a manufacturing plant in China (The Workbook, Winter 1995, p. 158).

Monsanto acquired just less than half of Calgene, an agricultural biotechnology corporation which engineered the "Flavr Savr" tomato (The Workbook, Winter 1995, p. 158, citing the Pesticide Action Network, San Francisco).

Monsanto products include NutraSweet and Equal (synthetic sweeteners); Simplesse (artifical fat); Astroturf, Roundup, Lasso, and Harness Plus (herbicides); Cytotec and Calan (drugs), Psoilac (bovine growth hormone); NewLeaf (pest resistant potatoes); Boligard (pest resistant cotton).

"Six farmers are suing biotechnology giant Monsanto, claiming the company skipped safety tests in its rush to bring genetically engineered seeds to the marketplace. The lawsuit, handled by a cadre of powerful environmental and antitrust lawyers, also accuses Monsanto to conspiring to control the world market in corn and soybean seeds." (Environment News Service (ENS), Dec. 15, 1999,

"With more of a whimper than a bang, Monsanto, one of the most demonized companies in recent histories" yesterday voted to approve its merger with Pharmacia & Upjohn and "end its life as an independent entity." And "none of the environmental groups who have so strenuously attacked Monsanto's gene-altering technology and effectively forced the life sciences group to put itself up for sale" were present at the meeting. "Without a single question being asked," the "silent shareholders voted overwhelmingly" to approve the multibillion dollar merger. Bob Shapiro, the Monsanto chairman "who spearheaded the company's ambitious, costly and ultimately fateful move into the world of genetically modified foods" said it was a "momentous day in the history of the company," but "seemed surprised that it was all over in 10 minutes. ... as shareholders bolted for the doors." Shapiro "hoped" to finalize the partial spin-off of the seed and agricultural interests of Monsanto "as soon as practicable." Pharmacia shareholders also approved the deal in a separate meeting yesterday (Nikki Tait, Financial Times, March 24). (Greenwire, March 24, 2000).

Monsanto bibliography:

The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on Monsanto in 1991-92 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).

Dan J. Forrestal, Faith, Hope & $5,000: The Story of Monsanto: The Trials and Triumphs of the First 75 Years (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1979). (The former director of public relations for Monsanto's company history).

Mary Scott, Interview with Monsanto CEO Robert Shapiro: Can we Trust the Maker of Agent Orange to Genetically Engineer Our Food", Business Ethics: The Magazine of Socially Responsible Business, Jan-Feb. 1996, p. 47-50.

For ongoing coverage of Monsanto see the back issues AL Krebs' Agribusiness Examiner at the Corporate Agribusiness Research Project (CARP) web site







1251 Avenue of the Americas, New York NY 10020
telephone 212-703-4000

Investment bank split from J.P Morgan; became a public company in 1986, but its principals and managing directors hold 81 percent of its stock. There are numerous lawsuits stemming from leveraged buyouts and mergers and acquisitions in the 1980s (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 413).




U.S. OPIC-financed gold mining project in Kyrgystan/Kazakhstan (Denver Post, Dec. 17, 1993, P. C12).




1303 E. Algonquin Rd., Schaumberg IL 60196
telephone 708-576-5000

Established in 1949, making car radios and defense radios. Vacuum tubes, solid-state devices, semiconductors, integrated circuits, and microprocessors followed. Sold its TV business to Japan in 1979. Now the biggest US and fourth-biggest world supplier of semiconductors. 1990 sales almost $11 billion, 40 percent of it outside of the U.S. Has facilities in ten U.S. states, Europe, Australia, Canada, Puerto Rico, Asia, Mexico, Central America, and the Middle East (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992, p. 392).

Motorola's plans for a cellular phone and semiconductor manufacturing facility outside Beijing were announced in March 1992. Motorola has supply contracts in Thailand, Indonesia, Brunnei, and the Philippines as well (Engineering News Record, Apr. 6, 1992, p. 5).

Its cellular phone operations in Argentina are U.S. OPIC-assisted (OPIC 1991 Annual Report).




Has 5.5 million acres in diamond mining claims, part of a 25-million acre diamond staking rush in Alberta, Canada (FW: Financial World, Mar. 30, 1993, p. 109 advertisement for investors).





Myanmar Oil & Gas Enterprise (MOGE), the agency overseeing oil and gas development in Burma, is controlled by the military regime SLORC; in 1989 SLORC/MOGE signed multimillion dollar contracts with Amoco, Unocal, Idemitsu, Shell, Yukong, Broken Hill Petroleum, Petro Canada, Croft Exploration, and Kirkland Resources. Since 1989, other companies have signed contracts with SLORC/MOGE: Premier Oil, Nippon Oil Exploration, ELF, Petronas, International Petroleum Corporation, Apache Oil, Tyndall International, Texaco, Total. Many of these multinational corporations subcontract the actual work in Burma (roadbuilding, seismic testing, drilling wells, etc) to other companies such as Parker Drilling, Compagnie General de Geophysique, Geophysical Company Ltd.(owned by Schlumberger), Halliburton, Grant Norpac, Heavilift, Columbia Co., PAE Singapore, Seismograph Services Ltd. (owned by Raytheon). A subsidiary of the Thai national oil company, PTT Exploration and Production, has proposed developing natural gas in Burma's Gulf of Mataban and shipping it to Thailand through an undersea pipeline. Some of these companies have pulled out; see the articles by Dara O'Rourke in Multinational Monitor (Oct. 1992 and June 1993).