Corporate profiles compiled by George Draffan
Public Information Network, PO Box 95316, Seattle WA 98145-2316 USA
FAIR USE NOTICE: This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political and economic issues.
Danube River, Czechoslovakia
Despite years of controversy caused by the diversion of the Danube and the resulting destruction of wetlands and bayous and much of northwest Hungary's water supply, it was announced in November 1990 by the Czech government that the Gabcikovo dam on the River Danube would be completed. Czechoslovakia, dependent on acid rain-causing lignite coal, and criticized for building nuclear power plants, is under pressure to produce hydroelectricity. Upstream towards Budapest, Hungary began building the Nagymaros dam, but it was put on hold after the 1989 revolutions in Eastern Europe (New Scientist, Dec. 1990, p. 25).
GALACTIC RESOURCES LTD.
Canadian mining company which built the Summitville, Colorado heap leach gold mine in 1986. In 1991 a metals and cyanide spill killed aquatic life in the Alamosa River; Galactic pulled out, forfeited a small reclamation bond, and left the public to clean up the spill; more than $100 million has been spent so far by federal and state taxpayers (Audubon Activist, Apr. 1995, p. 8).
900 Cherry Ave., San Bruno CA 94066
Controlled by the Fisher family. The Gap (and its Old Navy and Banana Republic) has 3,000 stores.
The Fisher family's 34% interest in the Gap, and its involvement in the Natural Resources Defense Council, are recounted in an article in the Wall Street Journal in February 2000. The article discusses the Fisher's forest controversy, but ignores the Fishers' other investments (see Peter Waldman, Fishers Fall Into Credibility Gap In Forest Lands of California, Wall Street Journal, Feb 23, 2000).
The Fishers are also involved in SPO Partners, which is the the main shareholder of Plum Creek Timber
From Global Exchange's overview of the Gap campaign:
"Gap, like Nike, is an industry leader. Owning not only Gap but Banana Republic and Old Navy, it has become one of the most profitable and fastest-growing clothing retailers in the world. In 1998 Gap had sales of over $9 billion, net profits of $825 million and has an extraordinary projected growth rate over the next three years of 33%. Gap CEO Millard Drexler made $47 million and Gap Chairman Donald Fisher is worth $8 billion. In 1995 Gap was the target of an anti-sweatshop campaign spearheaded by the National Labor Committee because of union-busting in the Mandarin factory in El Salvador. After successful grassroots mobilization, Gap agreed to a monitoring system at that factory that continues to this day. While Gap received good publicity for this move, it failed to implement all the reforms; it put minimal resources into the monitoring system and reneged on its pledge to extend such monitoring to other factories in the region. Furthermore, in three years of discussions with anti-sweatshop groups, Gap has refused to take a serious look at the wage question. In a meeting with the company, we convinced Gap to agree to the statement that no worker making products for Gap should live in poverty, but Gap still refused to take the next step and accept responsibility for ensuring that workers are paid the necessary living wage. In Saipan, a US territory replete with sweatshops, Gap does the most business of any company on the island--over $200 million a year, contracting in six factories. Whereas these companies import without tariff or quota restrictions and label their clothes 'Made in the USA,' they do not adhere to US labor laws. Workers and the anti-sweatshop groups UNITE, Global Exchange, Sweatshop Watch and the Asian Law Caucus filed a billion dollar lawsuit against Gap and 17 other retailers for labor abuses in Saipan. The sweatshop problem undoubtedly extends beyond Saipan. In Russia we were notified that Gap pays factory workers just 11 cents/hour and keeps them in slave-like conditions. Workers from Macao contacted the Asia Monitor Resource Center in Hong Kong complaining of abusive treatment by factory managers, who forced them to work excessive overtime and cheated them out of their pay. A delegation from the National Labor Committee in June 1999 reported that Honduran Gap factory workers are subjected to forced pregnancy tests, forced overtime, exceedingly high production goals, locked bathrooms, and wages of $4/day, which only meet 1/3 of their basic needs. The workers said that if they tried to organize a union or even become more informed of their rights, they would be fired. They had never heard of Gap's code of conduct. In Indonesia, 700 workers went on strike in July, 1997 protesting miserable wages and the factory management's refusal to recognize their independent union." (Global Exchange, Gap Campaign Overview, http://www.globalexchange.org/economy/corporations/gap/overview.html, Dec. 23, 1999).
The major owners of the Gap are the Fisher family. The Fishers purchased 235,000 acres of cutover Louisiana Pacific forest lands (mostly in Mendocino County), several L-P mills and L-P's logging program, on July 1, 1998, and set up the Mendocino Redwood Company (MRC) to log the lands... The Fishers have furthermore begun an intense "green-washing" campaign-the likes of which we have never seen in Mendocino County (5 full page ads in one local paper). They are attempting to "sell" clearcutting as some sort of restoration program (!), and have created phony "stewardship" policies, such as their "old growth policy" (they won't log trees of 250+ years of age and 48+ inches diameter, of which they have almost none), and their "variable retention" policy (clearcutting 90% of the trees instead of 100%) (http://www.elksoft.com/gwa/recent/memo.html, Dec. 9, 1999).
Websites on Gap:
Admiralty Road, Great Yarmouth, Norfolk NR30 3NG, England
Oil exploration and development in Scotland (Office in Aberdeen), Singapore, and Malaysia (office in Kuala Lumpur) (Whole Wolrd Oil Directory 1991, p. 143).
Papua New Guinea oil ventures (Oil & Gas Journal, June 5, 1989, p. 42, and June 19, 1989, p. 31).
Oil drilling in the Putamayo area of southwestern Colombia (Oil & Gas Journal, Oct. 9, 1989, p. 42).
GAS ORIENTE BOLIVIANO
630 kilometer pipeline project is owned by the Gas Oriente Boliviano consortium made up of Texas-based Enron, Shell, and the Bolivian company Transredes. The U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) provided a $200 million loan agreement for the project in June 1999. "The pipeline traverses one of the largest dry tropical forest areas in the world -- the Chiquitano Tropical Forests listed by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) as one of the 200 most important ecosystems throughout the globe. Nearly 100 mammal, bird and reptile species, including hyacinth macaw and the ocelot in the Chiquitano are protected under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), say environmentalists... WWF, Amazon Watch and Friends of the Earth have accused Enron -- which heads the construction consortium -- of failing to control erosion, water and air pollution, illegal hunting and unauthorized access to the route that runs alongside the pipeline... After visits to the construction site, [California-based Amazon Watch director Atossa] Soltani and a geology professor at the University of California said that Enron had violated several OPIC guidelines as well as Bolivian law. Their report said that, without authorization from Bolivian authorities, Enron built a new air strip, widened several access roads, and installed new workers camps close to small towns and in pristine forest areas. "Of great concern, is Enron's plans to build new access roads through pristine tropical forests," Soltani said, adding that such roads would be a violation of the company's loan agreement with OPIC. OPIC has denied violating environmental and social guidelines. In a seven-page written response, the agency argued that, based on the challenges of operating in a tropical ecosystem, the project was making "good progress" with its environmental and social objectives. OPIC insisted that "No new access roads have been build and none are planned."... The agency said the claims of erosion and other negative environmental impacts had been based on limited observations that took place right after the land was cleared and before controls were put in place. It admitted that a "few incidences" were reported in local communities regarding misconduct by local workers, but they had no lasting impact... The pipeline project forms part of a $2.1 billion, 3,150 km scheme to transport natural gas from Bolivia to Sao Paulo, Brazil. Starting in Ipias, Bolivia, the new project would branch off the existing Bolivia-Brazil pipeline. It would then run northeast through San Matias to Cuiaba, a small city in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, where Enron is constructing a 480-megawatt, combined-cycle natural gas power plant. (Environment: Bolivian Pipeline Is Destroying Tropical Forests, InterPress Service, Dec. 22, 1999).
The 243-mile Gas Oreiente Boliviano pipeline from Santa Cruz, Bolivia, to Cuiaba, Brazil, also known as the $570 million Cuiaba Integrated Energy Project, is set to be completed in March. It is being partly financed by a $200 million loan from OPIC. Many environmental groups say the loan violates the agency's own rules that prohibit the financing of "infrastructure projects in primary tropical forests." Friends of the Earth, Amazon Watch and other groups are seeking a congressional investigation into the agency's handling of the project. An environmental assessment conducted in May by five environmental groups, including the World Wildlife Fund, the Wildlife Conservation Society and the Bolivia-based Friends of Nature -- said the 15 million-acre Chiquitano forest in eastern Bolivia is a primary tropical ecosystem. Scientists say it is the last large and intact tropical dry forest in the world. Enron, Shell, Transredes and the OPIC rejected the environmentalists' request that they reroute the pipeline around the forest, saying the area crossed by the pipeline is not a primary forest. Eduardo Jose Cordi of Gas Oriente Boliviano, the company set up to manage the pipeline: "This route is very good and has the least impact on the Chiquitano and Pantanal. This is the most feasible route." But Patricia Caffrey, director of World Wildlife Fund-Bolivia, said, "We know their decision did not take into account environmental or social criteria. They took the cheapest route -- a straight line." In a move that has "sharply divided" environmentalists, the five groups that produced the assessment have agreed to withdraw opposition to the pipeline in exchange for $20 million for conservation projects in the forest. The agreement has "re-fueled" opposition, and the World Wildlife Fund has since withdrawn from the agreement (Greenwire, Jan. 4, 2000, citing Jimmy Langman, Miami Herald, Jan. 3, 1999).
GASTON COPPER RECYCLING
Gaston Copper Recycling, Hy-Tex Marketing, and Stoller Chemical secretly mixed highly toxic smelting waste dust with fertilizer and exported it to Bangladesh. The "fertilizer" turned out to be nearly seven percent lead, and to contain cadmium and other toxics. Stoller has declared bankruptcy; the three corporations and three employees have been indicted for the illegal treatment and export of hazardous waste (Ann Leonard, "Poison Fields: Dumping Toxic 'fertilizer' on Bangladeshi Farmers," Multinational Monitor, Apr. 1993, p. 14-18).
In June 2000, Cambodia accused GAT International Co Ltd of Malaysia of "illegally cutting logs worth nearly $105,000 within its own and another company's concession areas in the Cardomom Mountains in southwest Cambodia. 'We have suspended all of GAT's logging activities in the Cardomoms and will pass the case to the courts,' [Cambodian Forestry Director] Ty Sokun said. The move follows an investigation by environmental watchdog Global Witness and Cambodian officials... The government said GAT had cut trees from its own concession area and that of Samling International, also of Malaysia. The Cardomom Mountains, in Cambodia's Koh Kong province, are considered one of Southeast Asia's most pristine conservation areas and are home to scores of endangered species... The World Bank estimates that illegal logging has halved the amount of forest cover in Cambodia to 30 percent over the past decade (Reuters, June 12, 2000, Cambodia to prosecute Malaysian logging firm).
GEARHART MALAYSIA see Halliburton
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
In 1990, Geddes proposed an open pit copper mine on Windy Craggy Mountain, in the Tatshenshini/Alsek area of British Columbia, in Yakutat Tlingit peoples' land, near Haines, Alaska. In June 1992, British Columbia Premier Harcourt announced the creation of a 2.6 million acre Tatshenshini-Alsek Wilderness Park, ending Geddes' plans. Along with the adjacent Glacier Bay, Kluane, and Wrangell-St.Elias National Parks, the area encompasses 27 million acres, the world's largest international protected wilderness (Clementine: the Journal of Responsible Mineral Development, Autumn 1993, p.15-16).
90 E. Halsey Rd., Prsippany NJ 07054
Trona (soda ash) mining in Green River Basin, Wyoming (Mining Magazine, July 1991, p. 6).
3190 Fairview Park Drive, Falls Church VA 22042
Begun in 1899 as Electric Boat Company; launched the first nuclear submarine, in 1955. Now one of the largest military contractors in the U.S.; 85 percent of its 1991 sales were to the U.S. government. Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway bought 15 percent of General Dynamics in 1992; the Crown family of Chicago owns another 14 percent. Subsidiaries include American Overseas marine, Freeman United Coal, Marblehead Lime, and Material Service Corporation; in 1992, General Dynamics sold its missile division to Hughes Aircraft, and sold Cessna Aircraft to Textron (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 290).
The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on General Dynamics in 1991-92 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
See Brotherhood of Arms: General Dynamics and the Business of Defending America, by Jacob Goodwin (Times Books, New York, 1985).
3135 Easton Turnpike, Fairfield, CT 06431
Begun in 1892 by Thomas Edison, who left in 1894. Backed by J.P. Morgan. Began RCA in the 1920s with Westinghouse and AT&T; GE was ordered to sell its share of RCA in 1930 (in one of 65 antitrust actions against GE between 1911 and 1967), but bought RCA again, this time including NBC, in 1986. In the 1980s GE sold its air conditioning, mining, and semiconductor operations to concentrate on medical equipment, financial services, and high-performance plastics and ceramics. Bought a majority interest in Hungarian lighting company Tungsram; owns part of THORN Light Source (UK). Has 274 manufacturing facilities in 26 countries; is involved in medical equipment (CGR), aircraft engines, appliances, aerospace, broadcasting (RCA, NBC), financial services (Kidder, Peabody since 1990), insurance (Employers Reinsurance), power systems, and industrial products; $59 billion in sales in 1991, up from $26 billion in 1982 (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 291).
GE is being investigated for fixing industrial diamond prices with South Africa's De Beers.
Mining in Brazil (The Ecologist 19(6):219-224 (1989).
European Gas Turbine Co. NV (EGT) is a subsidiary of GEC Alsthom and GE. Has agreement to provide (through EGT's French and German subsidiaries) to provide parts and technical assistance to Kirov Works in St. Petersburg, Russia, to manufacture gas turbines (Energy World, Oct. 1991, p. 4).
GE made it onto the Council on Economic Priorities' short list for worst environmental offenders, for its operation of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in Washington State; its dumping of PCBs into the Hudson River in New York over 30 years; and its deficient nuclear containment vessels (Earth Island Journal, Winter 1993, p. 20; and Mother Jones, Jan/Feb 1993).
Has opened offices in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (Reuters, Seattle Times, May 21, 1993, p. C11; Seattle Times, Jan. 5, 1994, p. D6).
See also RCA.
Bibliography on GE:
Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on GE in 1991-92 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
O'Boyle, Thomas. At Any Cost: Jack Welch, General Electric and the Pursuit of Profit. Knopf, 1998).
GENERAL LUMBER HOLDINGS Bhd
Has 196,000 hectares in ten- to fifteen-year timber concessions in Papua New Guinea (Asian Timber, June 1991, p.9).
1 General Mills Blvd., PO Box 1113, Minneapolis MN 55440
Flour mill in Panama receiving U.S. OPIC assistance (OPIC 1991 Annual Report).
GENERAL MINING & FINANCE
South African mining combine; joint venture in Transvaal ferrochrome with Union Carbide (WOTE, p. 121).
3044 West Grand Blvd.,Detroit MI 48202
Begun in 1908; acquired Oldsmobile, Cadillac, Pontiac, Chevrolet, Fisher Body, etc. Du Pont acquired stock in the 1910s, reaching a quarter by 1920. The Supreme Court ordered Du Pont to divest in 1957. Bought Ross Perot's Electronic Data Systems in 1984 and Hughes Aircraft in 1986. Has more than 50 joint ventures, including in China and with Toyota in Australia. Owns Allison Gas Turbine and transmission, Delco Electronics, GMAC (financial services), Isuzu Motors (37 percent), Motors Insurance, Power Products and Defense Operations, and Saab (50 percent). Has facilities in 43 countries (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 293).
GM is a member of the National Wildlife Federation's Corporate Conservation Council.
The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on General Motors in 1991-92 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
GM runs maquiladora plants in Mexico. GM is second only to the Mexican government oil monopoly in exports ("Mexico welcomes carmakers," Los Angeles Times/Seattle Times, Apr. 22, 1992).
GM made it onto the Council on Economic Priorities' short list for worst environmental offenders, for its toxic pollution; its violations of occupational safety and health laws; its responsibility for some 200 Superfund sites; and its production of ozone-depleting chemicals in California (Earth Island Journal, Winter 1993, p. 20; and Mother Jones, Jan/Feb 1993).
See also The Greenpeace Book of Greenwash (1992).
GENTING SANYEN see Sanyan
GEOPHYSICAL COMPANY LTD. see Schlumberger
GEORGIA-PACIFIC click here for a detailed profile
133 Peachtree St. NE, Atlanta, GA 30303
telephone 404-521-4000 or 800-447-2882
In 1989, the Rainforest Action Network targeted Georgia-Pacific and Weyerhaeuser with a boycott. Rainforest Action Network claimed G-P is a primary importer of tropical hardwood products into the U.S., importing at least 261 million pounds between April 1988 and September 1989. "The company operates a large hardwood veneer plant in Brazil, and imports finished wood products, especially plywood, directly from Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines."
Rainforest Action Network. Leaflet, Dec. 1989.
World Rainforest Report, Jan-Feb. 1990.
By the 1970s, G-P had $8 million invested in a 3200-square-kilometer timber concession in East Kalimantan, Indonesia (SKEPHI, 1990, Selling Our Common Heritage, p. 30-31). Bob Hasan's Kertas Kraft Aceh cement sack paper mill in northern Sumatra, Indonesia; joint venture with Georgia-Pacific; will use 100,000 hectares of pine forest in central Aceh until plantation forest is available (Carrere and Lohmann, Pulping the South, p. 213, 220). Georgia Pacific Indonesia PT has a Jakata office at J1 Let Jen Haryono MT 58, Jakarta, tel. 793573 (Directory of Indonesian Importers and Exporters 1990-91). Georgia-Pacific Indonesia's mailing address, Box 252. Menteng Raya 72, Jakarta, is also the address for Kalimanis Plywood Industries (see Weyerhaeuser) (Owen's World Trade: Africa & Asia Business Directory 1985; Asian Timber 1988).
Hardwood veneer and plywood plant (G-P, 1981 Annual Report). Owns a million acres in Brazil.
Amazonias Compensados E. Laminados
Belem, Para, Brazil
International Directory of Corporate Affiliations 1991 and Catalyst newsletter v.7 n.1 (1990).
G-P "sold" its Para, Brazil hardwood veneer plant to the plant's management but will remain a customer. G-P also sold 50,000 acres of rainforest in the area (World Rainforest Report, Jan. 1991 p. 5).
Aztec Trading Co., Panama
Beaver Wood Fibre Co., Thorold, Ontario, Canada
Compania de Navegacion Arboreous, Panama
Envases Industriales de Costa Rica
Limon Apdo 151, San Jose, APDO, 4712 Costa Rica. Includes an "industrial packaging" operation.
Box 950, Whiteville, NC 28472, 919-642-5041. Sells mahogany and teak panels (Directory of the Forest Products Industry, 1988).
1900 Irving Rd., Eugene, OR 97440, 503-689-1221. Paneling, plywood, veneer, and imported hardwood (Crow's 1988-1989).
Georgia-Pacific Finance N.V., Curacao Netherland Antilles (West Indies).
G-P Foreign Sales, Virgin Islands
Industria Panamena de Papel, Apartado 6908, Panama. Includes an "industrial packaging" operation.
Inversiones Morgan, Panama.
Metro Steamship Co., Liberia
U.S. Plywood is a Georgia-Pacific subsidiary.
Georgia-Pacific has negotiated a logging and pulping contract for taiga forest in Russia (letter from Tim Tenkoala, Native Forest Network, Tasmania, June 1992).
Subsidiaries listed in the International Directory of Corporate Affiliations 1991, p. US-167 include:
Beaver Wood Fiber Co. Ltd., Thorold, Ontario, Canada (includes a gypsum plant).
G-P Building Materials Sales, Ltd., Thorold, Ontario, Canada
G-P International Corp., Tokyo, Japan (sells pulp).
G-P GmbH, Dusseldorf, Germany (sells pulp).
G-P S.A., Zug, Switzerland (marketing and sales).
St. Croix Pulpwood Ltd., St. Croix, New Brunswick, Canada (pulpwood logging).
F.A. Marsden Ltd., London, England (wholesale paper).
On August 24, 1992, Rainforest Action Group protesters chained themselves to a G-P lumber yard in San Leandro, California to protest G-P's importation of tropical hardwoods. They claimed fifty percent of G-P's imports were finished wood products, mainly from Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. The group also targeted the University of California, a large shareholder of G-P stock (Earth First!, Sept. 22, 1992, p. 23).
G-P made it onto the Council on Economic Priorities' short list for worst environmental offenders, for its air pollution; chloroform and dioxin emissions; tax evasion; and importing of tropical wood (Earth Island Journal, Winter 1993, p. 20; and Mother Jones, Jan/Feb 1993).
John R. Ross, Maverick: The Story of Georgia-Pacific, published by G-P, 1980.
See also Fibreboard.
Guyana: G-P is purchasing plywood from Barama Company Ltd., a consortium of Korean and Malaysian corporations which in 1991 obtained a 50-year license to 4 million acres of lands in Guyana; the lands are traditional to the Carib, Arawak, and Warrau peoples. (Rainforest Action Network, G-P Lip Sevice Kisses Off Guyana's Forests, Action Alert, Sept. 1995, No. 112).
GEOSCAN PTY LTD.
Providing airborne multispectral scanner data for the Santa Luz gold project in Bahia, Brazil. The 3000 square kilometer survey is to take place in July 1992. Also involved are the Brazilian government's Cia; the state-owned mining agency Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD); and CVRD subsidiary Rio Doce Geologia e Mineracao SA (Docegeo) (Mining Magazine, Mar 1992, p. 179).
GEZHOUBA DAM see Three Gorges Dams
Received a $3.5 billion contract with United Arab Emirates for 390 tanks and 56 support vehicles (New York Times, Feb. 16, 1993, p. C7).
Razor blade manufacturing in Turkey received U.S. OPIC aid (OPIC 1991 Annual Report).
310-5190 Neil Road
Reno NV 89502
Rand Mine (California)
Marigold Mine (Nevada)
Cerro Blanco (Guatemala)
Marlin Mine (Guatemala)
Montana Mining Company
San Martin Mine (Honduras)
El Sauzal Mine (Mexico)
Board of Directors as of April 2005:
A. Dan Rovig, Chairman of the Board. Formerly an executive officer of British Petroleum Ltd.
C. Kevin McArthur, President & CEO. Fornerly with BP Minerals-North America and Homestake Mining Company.
Ian S. Davidson. Also Vice-President of RBC Dominion Securities in Vancouver, B.C.
P. Randy Reifel. Also President and Director of Chesapeake Gold Corp.
Kenneth F. Williamson.
GLAXO WELLCOME PLC
In January 2000, Glaxo Wellcome annoounced a plan to buy SmithKline Beecham for $76 billion in stock.. Glaxo SmithKline would be the world's largest drugmaker with 7 percent of the global pharmaceutical market and a market value of about $182 billion.
The "world's first independent provider of global long distance telecommunications facilities and services, utilizing a network of undersea digital fiber-optic cable systems and associated terrestrial backhaul capacity. As such, the company believes it is the first to offer its customers access to multiple destinations worldwide through "one-stop shopping. Global Crossing's mission is to develop, own and operate the world's first independent integrated global network to help satisfy the explosive demand for reliable, high quality undersea transmission capacity. Global Crossing is rapidly developing major fiber optic undersea cable systems and terrestrial facilities, to reliably and cost-effectively connect the leading cities in the world" (http://globalcrossing.com).
Atlantic Crossing (AC-1) cable, a high-capacity system that will link the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Germany, began commercial service on May 26, 1998, with the full, self-healing ring ready-for-service in February 1999."
Pacific Crossing (PC-1), a 21,000 kilometer, four fiber pair self-healing ring will connect the United States to Japan. Global Crossing and Japanese trading giant, Marubeni Corporation, have formed a joint venture to construct and own PC-1, which is scheduled to commence initial service in March 2000.
Mid-Atlantic Crossing (MAC), a two fiber pair self-healing ring, will connect New York (at the AC-1 Brookhaven Cable Station), the Caribbean, and Florida, and will commence initial service in first quarter 2000.
Pan European Crossing (PEC) will connect 24 major commercial centers in Europe, including London, Amsterdam and Frankfurt, with the United States, Asia and Latin America. This $850 million high-capacity terrestrial telecommunications network will link with Global Crossing's four other undersea systems, creating a direct city-to-city network connecting the world's largest metropolitan areas to meet the growing demand for world-wide Internet and communications connectivity.
South American Crossing (SAC) is a four-fiber-pair system linking the U.S. Virgin Islands, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Peru, Colombia, and Panama. SAC will be implemented in several phases with the complete self-healing ring scheduled for service in early 2001.
"Global Crossing, a 2-year-old company building a worldwide undersea fiber network, will sell 7 percent of its trans-Pacific cable to Microsoft and Softbank for $350 million in cash to expand in Asia, the companies said. The three companies will form a joint venture to build a broadband network in East Asia. Redmond software giant Microsoft and Tokyo-based Softbank also will commit to a three-year purchase of $200 million in capacity on Bermuda-based Global Crossing's worldwide network. The arrangement is a vote of confidence by Microsoft and Softbank, Japan's biggest Internet investment company, in Global Crossing's Asian plans, which are facing competition from AT&T and Nippon Telegraph & Telephone. The joint venture, to be known as Asia Global Crossing, plans to build a $1.3 billion broadband network stretching more than 11,000 miles. It will link Japan, China, Singapore, Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines and Malaysia to North America, Europe and Latin America through Global Crossing's worldwide network. Global Crossing will contribute to Asia Global Crossing its 57.75 percent stake in Pacific Crossing 1, a 13,000-mile trans-Pacific fiber cable it's building between Japan and the U.S. West Coast. Pacific Crossing 1 is expected to begin operations in four months. Softbank and Microsoft, which will each contribute $175 million in cash, will receive a 3.5 percent stake each. Their stakes will increase if the fair-market value of Asia Global Crossing exceeds $5 billion, reaching a maximum of 19 percent each if the joint-venture value reaches $7.5 billion. Global Crossing will retain a 62 percent stake, and Softbank and Microsoft will each keep 19 percent. Asia Global Crossing will finance the network in East Asia, at a cost of about $1.28 billion in the next two years, and other projects independently of its three partners, the companies said. Global Crossing, Microsoft and Softbank intend to take Asia Global Crossing public eventually and to bring in local partners in some countries." (George Stein, Bloomberg News, Seattle Times, Sept. 8, 1999).
"Global Crossing built a 100,000 mile (160,900km) network of fibre optic cables around the world, but crashed when the internet and telecoms bubble burst" (BBCNews.com, April 27, 2004) and filed for banruptcy in January 2002 and was under investigation by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, the Federal Bureau of Investigation for its accounting practices. It emerged from bankruptcy in December 2003 after being taken over by Singapore Technologies Telemedia.
GLOBAL FORESTRY MANAGEMENT GROUP
Consortium of U.S. companies planning to log up to a million acres of virgin forest at Vysokogorney, Khabarovsky Krai, Siberia for export as raw logs to Japan. GFMG members include Croman Corp (Ashland OR), Sun Studs (Roseburg OR), Freres Lumber (Lyons OR), Hanel Lumber (Hood River OR), Ochoco Lumber (Prineville OR), Avison Lumber (Molalla OR), Jones International Services (Seattle WA), Columbia Vista Corp (Vancouver WA), SDS Lumber (Bingen WA), Hi-Ridge Lumber (Yreke CA), and Sierra Forest Products (Terra Bella CA). GFMG has been subsidized by public agencies, including the U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency (GFMG received $500,000 of U.S. taxpayers' money from the U.S. TDA to conduct a feasibility study of its proposed logging operations). Contact Pacific Environment and Resources Center http://www.pacificenvironment.org
Media empire begun by the Time-Life group in the early 1960s. Controlled by Roberto Marinho, who owns radio, TV, publishing, telecommunications, electronics, real estate, agriculture, insurance, and banking companies. Collor family also involved. Owns Dutch-based holding company Globo Europa. Purchased TV Montecarlo in 1985. Agreements with Italy's RAI and the Cuban Radio and Television Institute.
See Bill Hinchberger, "Brazil's Media Monopoly," (Multinational Monitor, Jan/Feb. 1991, p. 37-40); and Daniel Herz's The Secret History of the Globo Network.
GOLD MINES OF AMERICA
The San Andreas mine in Honduras is an open pit heap leach operation; the mine was begun in the 16th century. Many companies are involved: Asarco; Gold Mines of America; Fisher-Watt Gold Co; Madeline Mines Ltd; Milner Consolidated; Kennecott has 80 percent interest (Engineering & Mining Journal, Feb. 1992, p. 7).
Has begun development of gold and diamond mines in Venezuela (Marple's Business Newsletter, June 17, 1992).
GOLDEN KNIGHT RESOURCES
1199 West Hastings St., Vancouver British Columbia V6E 2K5
Gold mining; 1991 revenues of C$20 million) (Worldscope 1992).
Oil development by Anglo-Suisse in western Siberia; see White Nights entry.
Exploratory oil drilling contracts with Indonesia signed 1989 (Oil & Gas Journal, Aug. 7, 1989, p. 3).
GOLDEN STAR RESOURCES
Involved in a joint venture gold mine at Omai in Guyana with Cambior, Fluor Daniel Wright, Ivanhoe Capital, Placer Dome, and South American Goldfields (Marcus Colchester, "Sacking Guyana" in Multinational Monitor, Sept. 1991, p. 8-14). Using the 1000-km Brazil-Guyana highway currently under construction (Minerals Industry International, July 1990, p. 3).
GOLDFIELDS see Consolidated Goldfields of South Africa
GOODMATCH Sdn Bhd
Ishinomaki Plywood and Goodmatch are setting up a veneer, plywood, particleboard, and medium-density fibreboard joint ventures in Sungai Binjei, Batang Rajang, in Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. Goodmatch is associated with the Sanyan Group, a Sarawak majority-owned company (Asian Timber, June 1993, p.8).
1144 East Market St., Akron, OH 44316
Begun in Ohio in the 1890s; sales doubled during World War I, and by the end of the 1920s Goodyear was the largest rubber company in the world, with 40,000 workers on plantations in Costa Rica, Sumatra, and the Philippines and manufacturing plants in the U.S., Canada, Australia, and England. By the early 1980s, 132,000 employees in 101 facilities in 28 countries (Palmer, 1994, p. 19ff).
Goodyear owns the Finca Las Delicias plantation in Retalhuleu, Guatemala (Dun's Latin America's Top 25,000 [Corporations], 1990 edition).
Firestone pioneered rubber plantations, in Liberia, along with Ford (in the Amazon, 1926 to 1947) and Goodyear (in Panama and Costa Rica, from 1934).
Goodyear subsidiaries include Goodyear Indonesia, Goodyear Sumatra Plantations Co. Ltd., Goodyear Malaysia, and Goodyear Thailand (Who Owns Whom 1990: Australia & Far East).
Allen, Hugh. The House of Goodyear: Fifty Years of Men and Industry. Corday & Gross, 1949.
O'Reilly. Goodyear Story.
Palmer. Bryan D. Goodyear Invades the Backcountry: The Corporate Takeover of a Rural Town. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1994. (Union busting, corporate subsidies, and Napanee, Ontario, Canada).
Million square kilometer mining project in Amazonian Brazil; will affect 23 tribal groups, including the Guaja, or Awa, of Maranhao, whose population has been reduced by half to less than 300 people. The CVRD (Compania Vale do Rio Doce) has built the Carajas Railway on the southern border of the area in 1985 to give access to pig iron/charcoal smelters (World Rainforest Report, No. 20, p. 13; and No. 21, Feb. 1992, p. 17,25).
Power is supplied by the Tucurui dam.
Includes two bauxite projects of Billiton and Shell, near the Trombetas River in Para, and on Sao Luis island (The Ecologist 19(6):219-224 (1989).
10550 Richmond Ave., Houston TX 77042
Grant Norpac began oil exploration in Burma in 1989. Elf Aquitaine began oil exploration in Burma in 1989. Myanmar Oil & Gas Enterprise (MOGE), the agency overseeing oil and gas development in Burma, is controlled by the military regime SLORC; since 1989, MOGE has signed multimillion dollar contracts with many foreign oil companies. A subsidiary of the Thai national oil company, PTT Exploration and Production, has proposed developing natural gas in Burma's Gulf of Mataban and shipping it to Thailand through an undersea pipeline. (See article by Dara O'Rourke, "Oil in Burma: Fueling Oppression," Multinational Monitor 13(10):7-11, Oct. 1992).
GREAT WHALE PROJECT see James Bay
Owns half the Santa Rosa open pit heap leach gold project in Panama, with Boliden. Also operates the Oronorte mine in Colombia (opened 1990) and exploration in Canada (Mining Magazine, Sept. 1991, p. 176).
GROSSMAN'S LUMBER CO.
200 Union St., Braintree, MA 02184
U.S. retail chain selling tropical wood.
Acquired by Northrup in April 1994.
Westinghouse Northrup Grumman merger (Business Week, Jan. 22, 1996, p. 40).
The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on Grumman 1993 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
Anheuser-Busch purchased almost 18 percent of Mexico's largest brewer, Grupo Modelo, for $477; Modelo's products include Corona beer (Seattle Post-Intelligencer, June 18, 1993, p.E8).
GRUPO FINANCIERO BANAMEX-ACCIVAL
Mexico's largest banking company.
"Protexa: building Mexico's future. Whether it be drilling oil wells offshore Campeche, constructing the Zimapan Hydroelectric Plant in Central Mexico, building modern highways in the north of the country or constructing the El Cuchillo Dam in Nuevo Leon, the Protexa Group is participating in the construction and progress of Mexico" (from an adevrtisement in Fortune, May 31, 1993, p. 121).
Kinross Gold and Grynberg Resources, and Kamgeo, a group of Kamchatka companies, are partners in the Kamgold joint mining venture at Aginskoye on Kamchatka Peninsula in Siberia. Contact Pacific Environment and Resources Center, 1055 Fort Cronkhite, Sausalito CA 94965., 415-332-8200, fax 415-332-8167, email@example.com.
GTE (General Telephone and Electronics)
One Stamford Forum, Stamford CT 06904
Bought Sylvania. Bought US Sprint from Southern Pacific (1983); sold it to United Telecom in 1989. Merged with Contel in 1991, making it the largest U.S. telephone utility and the second largest cellular phone provider. Acquired 40 percent of the Venezuelan Compania Anonima Nacional Telefonas in 1991; also owns AG Communication Systems, British Columbia Telephone, Campania Dominicana de Telefonos, and Quebec Telephone (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 308).
The Dominican Republic operation is a U.S. OPIC project (OPIC 1991 Annual Report).
Kennecott copper mines in Alaska with J.P. Morgan and the Bingham Canyon mine in Utah; smelters and refineries in Everett and Tacoma, Washington, San Francisco, and New Jersey; Coeur d'Alene, Idaho mines; Leadville, Colorado mines; Pueblo, Colorado smelter; lead mines in Missouri; Chilean copper and nitrate mines; Mexican copper mines and tax-free smelters; Esperanza, the Mexican gold mine; Bolivian lead and silver mines; diamond mines in the Congo.
Sold Chilean Copper Co. to Anaconda in 1923; Allende nationalized the mines in 1971. Guggenheim owned American Smelting & Refining (ASARCO) from 1900 to the 1920s.
For history, see The Guggenheims: The Making of an American Dynasty, by Harvey O'Conner (Covici Friede, 1937; republished by Arno Press, 1976); The Guggenheims: an American Epic, by John H. Davis (New York: William Morrow, 1978) and The Mexican Mining Industry, 1890-1950, by Marvin D. Bernstein.
Development began in the 1970s; current output is 10 million tons, expected to be 50 million by 2000 (Mining Magazine, Aug 1991, p. 105).
GULF & WESTERN see Paramount Communications
Gulf & Western has owned Simon & Schuster, Prentice-Hall, Kayser-Roth, Schrafft candy, New Jersey Zinc, Quebec Iron & Titanium, South Puerto Rico Sugar, E.W. Bliss, Brown paper and building products, and Consolidated Cigar. In 1966, it bought Paramount Pictures, and in 1989 changed its name to Paramount Communications (Ridgeway, 1980, p.69; and Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p.448).
GULF CANADA RESOURCES
Suite 600, 1 First Canadian Place, Toronto Ontario Canada
A subsidiary of the Reichmanns' Olympia & York Developments, with offices in Calgary Alberta Canada (Whole World Oil Directory 1991, p. 150).
Asamera was merged into Gulf Canada Resources Ltd. in August 1988 (Worldscope database record).
Gulf Canada is involved in Russian oil (Wall Street Journal, July 7, 1992, p. A11).
Bought (and dismantled) by Chevron (Standard Oil of California) in 1984.
Was involved in oil exploration in the highlands of Papua New Guinea (National Geographic, Aug. 1989, p. 236), and in Ecuador (The Ecologist 19(6):219-224 (1989).
GULFSTREAM TRADERS LTD
Gulfstream Traders is John Rego (a Brazilian), with U.S. and European financial backing; since 1974 Gulfstream has shipped 300,000 cubic meters of lumber, mostly mahogany, from Brazil (Timber Trades Journal, Kent, England, July 1985).
GUYANA EXPLORATION LTD.
Surveying for oil in Guyana (Oil & Gas Journal, July 3, 1989, p. 32).