Corporate profiles compiled by George Draffan
Public Information Network, PO Box 95316, Seattle WA 98145-2316 USA
FAIR USE NOTICE: This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political and economic issues.
C & H see California & Hawaii Sugar Co.
C. ITOH see Itochu
CACHOEIRA PORTEIRA see Balbina
Agricultural biotechnology corporation; it engineered the "Flavr Savr" tomato. In the mid-1990s, Monsanto acquired almost half of Calgene.
CALIFORNIA & HAWAII SUGAR CO. (C & H)
Controlled by Amfac (Gulf & Western) (see WOTE).
CALIFORNIA ENERGY CO.
601 California St., Suite 900, San Francisco CA 94108
In 1991, Peter Kiewit Sons' construction company bought 14 percent of California Energy. Kiewit was fined in the 1970s for bid rigging on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers projects; in 1990 Kiewit paid $415 million for laying off employees to avoid having to pay their pensions. Kiewit CEO Walter Scott Jr. is also a director and large shareholder of California Energy, El Paso Natural Gas, and Burlington Resources (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992, p. 433; and Burlington Resources documents).
Involved in negotiations regarding geothermal development in Hawaii's Puna rainforest (Earth First! Journal, Aug. 1, 1990, p. 10). See also True Geothermal.
125 East John W. Carpenter Freeway, Irving, TX 75062
Texaco and Chevron own Caltex, which began overseas marketing in Saudi Arabia in 1936, and now operates in 58 countries in Asia and the Pacific Rim (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992, p. 515).
Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI) is an affiliate involved in oil exploration and production in Sumatra, Indonesia, with a giant oil field at Duri in central Sumatra with Haliburton (Oil & Gas Journal, May 15, 1989, p. 4 and July 24, 1989, p. 24). Pollution of Siak River tributaries has killed fish, destoyed rubber trees, and caused skin disease among the Sungai Limau villagers (Multinational Monitor, Dec. 1993, p. 15). CPI Chairman Julius Tahija has been active in the World Wildlife Fund (Chevron World, Spring/Summer 1990).
See also Chevron and Texaco entries.
See also Pertamina.
NOTE: The merger of Chevron and Texaco was approved by the U.S. FTC in October 2001.
CAMBERWELL COAL JOINT VENTURE
Partners in the Camberwell Coal Joint Venture include Navidale Pty Ltd., Toyota Tsusho Mining (Australia), and Dia Coal Mining Australia. Open cut coal mine opened in May 1991 in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia; the coal is exported to Japan. Main Northern Railway connects to Newcastle Port (Mining Magazine, July 1991, p. 20).
1075, 3rd Avenue East, Val D'or Quebec J9P 6M1, Canada
Major Canadian gold producer (312,665 ounces in 1990) (Worldscope database record).
Cambior is involved in a joint venture gold mine at Omai in Guyana with Fluor Daniel Wright, Golden Star, Ivanhoe Capital, Placer Dome, and South American Goldfields (Marcus Colchester, "Sacking Guyana" in Multinational Monitor, Sept. 1991, p. 8-14). The mine, in Esquibo, province is expected to begin producing in 1993. Incorporated as "Omai Gold Mines Ltd.," it will be held 60 percent by Cambior, 35 percent by Golden Star of Denver Colorado, and 5 percent by the Guyana government (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1987, p. 183; and Oct. 1991, p. 276).
In August 1995, more than 800 million gallons of cyanide waste spilled into the Omai and Essequibo Rivers after a retaining wall of a holding pond broke. Health officials distributed bottled water and warned 18,000 Indians, loggers, and miners not to touch the water or to eat fish or shrimp. Fish and wild hogs were found floating in the rivers. In May 1995 a smaller spill of sodium cyanide killed hundreds of fish (Bert Wilkinson, Associated Press, Cyanide Spills Into Guyana's Main River, Seattle Times, Aug. 23, 1995, p. A11).
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
Canadian mining corporation which signed a contract in 1992 to develop the Kumtor gold field in the mountains of southeast Kyrgyzstan; the gold field in this former Soviet republic is being billed as one of the world's largest (AP, "The Selling of Kyrgyzstan: Where is it? Who wants it?" Seattle Times, Jan. 6, 1993, p. C8). The mine has since been criticized for its chemical spills. See Kumtor Gold Mine.
Campbell Square, Kapolei, Hawaii
The Estate of James Campbell is involved in geothermal development in Hawaii (see the entries for Hawaii Electric Industries, Mid-Pacific, Ormat, and True Geothermal).
The Estate has received awards for its "environmental" activities: the establishment of the James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge in Kahuku in 1977; for land in Honouliui which it leases to the Nature Conservancy; and for its "Earth Day Every Day" advertisements on television (Hawaii Investor, Apr. 1993, p.14).
CANADIAN CHOPSTICK MANUFACTURING CO. see Mitsubishi
CANADIAN OCCIDENTAL PETROLEUM
1500 635 8th Ave SW, Calgary, Alberta T2P 3Z1
Oil exploration and development; has 1,000 employees (Whole World Oil Directory 1991).
CANADIAN BOGOSU RESOURCES LTD. (CBRL)
Joint venture company, with the Ghanian government holding 10 percent. It is working on $100 million gold mine/processing facilities that are supposed to take 15 years to construct, in Bogosu, western Ghana (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991, p. 103).
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Siberian oil venture (Wall Street Journal, Jan. 29, 1992, p. A1; Wall Street Journal, Feb. 5, 1992, p. A4).
Panamanian copper mining with RTZ and Texasgulf; see Chris N. Gjording's Conditions Not of Their Choosing: The Guayami Indians and Mining Multinational in Panama, (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991), reviewed in Multinational Monitor, Oct. 1991, p. 33-34).
CANANEA COPPER MINE
Controversy since the Mexican Revolution; see Earth Island Journal (Winter 1993-94, p. 13).
CANARC RESOURCE GROUP
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Mining projects in North, Central, and South America; is raising capital to acquire and develop mineral properties in Venezuela, Suriname, and Guyana (FW: Financial World, Aug. 3, 1993, p. 83 advertisement for investors).
CANIAPISCAU RIVER PROJECT see James Bay
CANTENA see Husky Oil
CANTERRA see Husky Oil
CAPRICORN see Weyerhaeuser
CARBOCOL (Colombian Coal Co.)
Government-owned. To boost its coal exports, Carbocol was seeking $3 billion from foreign investors for five projects in September 1991 (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991, p. 105).
1625 Buffalo Ave
Niagara Falls NY 14303
Sells preservatives in Jakarta, Indonesia (Asian Timber 1988).
PO Box 9300, 15407 McGinty Rd, Minneapolis MN 55440
Cargill has been part of the U.S. and global grain cartel since the 1870s. Beneficiary of U.S. loans to Third World to buy American grain, beginning in the 1950s. Expanded to barges and vessels (Cargo Carriers, Inc.), cotton (Hehenberg Bros.), petrochemicals, life insurance, futures and commodities trading, sugar and molasses, coal, steel, waste disposal, metals processing, beef, malt, and salt production. 1990 sales $42 billion. Has 800 plants, 500 U.S. offices, and 500 foreign offices in 54 countries; the largest are in Canada, Brazil, Argentina, and Europe (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992).
Cargill's fertilizer operations in Argentina received U.S. OPIC assistance (OPIC 1991 Annual Report).
Between 1985 and 1994, Cargill received $1.3 billion in U.S. Department of Agriculture "bonuses" to sell agricultural products at prices below cost (Zepezauer and Naiman, Take the Rich off Welfare, Tucson, AZ: Odonian Press, 1996, p. 104, citing Janice Shields, Aid for Foreign and U.S. Corporations, Washington, DC: Center for Study of Responsive Law, 1995).
Cargill made it onto the Council on Economic Priorities' short list of worst environmental offenders, for its 2,000 violations of occupational safety and health laws; its 40,000-gallon spill of phosphoric solution into Florida's Alafia River in 1988; and its poor air pollution compliance and toxic waste releases records Earth Island Journal, Winter 1993, p. 20; and Mother Jones, Jan/Feb 1993).
"About 100 members of the Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha (KRRS), a powerful farmers' association in India, entered and partially demolished sections of a factory owned by Cargill Seeds India Company in a pre-dawn operation on Monday, 12 July . More than 50 farmers were arrested during the incident at the partially completed seed processing plant in Bellary, 300 km from Bangalore in South India. The Rs 70 million (USD 2.2 million) plant was scheduled to begin commercial operations in three months. The farmers were later released. This is the second action taken by the movement as part of a campaign targeting all multinational corporations operating in the seed sector. Last year approximately a thousand farmers gathered at Cargill's offices to demand a ban on the entry of such companies into India. On December 29 KRRS activists destroyed the official records in the company's Bangalore office, but no officials were attacked in line with the Sangha's policy of non-violence. The KRRS, led by Professor of Law Nanjundaswamy, launched its "seed satyagraha" (a "satyagraha" denotes actions of civil disobedience) late last year with the aim of protecting the "rights of farmers to produce, use, modify and conserve seeds". The 13-year old movement grew out of the farmers' uprising against levies on irrigation water in Dharwad district. This fundamental right is under threat from multinational seed companies (MNCs) which see farmer's rights to their own seeds as an obstacle to market expansion by MNCs. The Bellary raid was carried out as part of protests against the acceptance of the GATT/Dunkel proposals on agriculture by the Indian government. The KRRS has been campaigning against the proposal for patenting of life forms for the past seven months. According to news reports in India, the KRRS said the Dunkel proposals were detrimental to Indian agriculture as they were aimed at patenting plants and genes, and were part of an international conspiracy to deny farmers the right to produce, modify and sell seeds. They demanded a ban on multinationals in the seed sector, a total rejection of the Dunkel proposals, and maintenance of status quo with regard to the Indian Patent Act of 1970, which excludes patents on all life forms. KRRS General Secretary Hanumanagouda told the Union Government to take a decision on the Dunkel proposals only after discussion with state governments. He said that the Sangha had also been demanding that the Union Government furnish details of MNCs which had been allowed to set up business in Karnataka. There are currently a total of six new multinationals in Karnataka either operating or scheduled to commence operations shortly in the fields of food and medicine. "Our movement will be intensified, and the farmers will continue to wage a relentless battle against multinationals," said Prof. Nanjundaswamy. He announced the KRRS's intention to destroy the property of MNCs operating in Karnataka two months ago. "This is a warning to Prime Minister Narasimha Rao," he added, referring to the Bellary attack as merely the first stage of a programme which will escalate. He identified the W.R. Grace (of Florida) neem-based pesticide manufacturing plant in Tumkur and the Pioneer Hybrid Seeds Ltd at Ranebennur as future targets for similar agitations. Cargill Seeds, a joint venture of the Delhi-based Tadco Group and Cargill Incorporated USA, is constructing seed- processing plants and huge godowns in Bellary to store seeds. This latest incident would delay the completion of the project, and Cargill spokespersons have said the company is contemplating legal action" ("India: Farmers Attack Seed Plant", a Third World Network alert in Econet igc:en.alerts, July 16, 1993, citing The Pioneer, Indian Express, The Economic Times, Times of India, and Business and Political Observer of 13 July 1993, and Vandana Shiva's Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Natural Resource Policy).
December 2000: "Cargill, the nation's largest private corporation, has announced that it has recalled some 16.7 million pounds of its cooked products, including sliced turkey breast, Cajun-fried turkey and smoked turkey, after the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revealed that there have been 28 cases of Listeria monocytogenes bacteria contamination involving Cargill products since July causing four deaths as well as three miscarriages or stillbirths. The recalled food was produced from May 1 to December 11 at a Cargill's Turkey Products' facility in Waco, Texas and distributed to grocery stores, restaurants and other institutions in the U.S., Iceland and Venezuela and is marked with the establishment number "P-635." USDA is urging consumers to check to see if they purchased any of the poultry products. Bacteria found in the contaminated turkey products produce flu-like symptoms and can be especially dangerous to pregnant women and people with weakened immune systems." (Agribusiness Examiner, Issue # 100, Dec 21, 2000, http://www.ea1.com/CARP/ ).
Bibliography on Cargill
Kneen, Brewster. Invisible Giant: Cargill and Its Transnational Strategies. Hallifax, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Publishing, 1995. Kneen edits "Ram's Horn: a Monthly Newsletter of Food System Analysis." Contact him at 125 Highfield Road, Toronto Ontario M4L 2T9, Canada, 416-469-8414, email@example.com.
Morgan, Dan. Merchants of Grain. 1979. A classic story of cartels and international influence; Cargill is one of the five corporations controlling the global grain trade.
For ongoing coverage of Cargill see the back issues AL Krebs' Agribusiness Examiner at the Corporate Agribusiness Research Project (CARP) web site http://www.ea1.com/CARP/
CARIBOU PULP & PAPER
Quesnel, British Columbia, Canada
Hinton, Alberta, Canada
Caribou Pulp & Paper is owned by Champion International's Weldwood and Daishowa-Marubeni International (Champion International 1992 Form 10-K, p. 3).
From the Buzzflash interview with Dan Briody, author of The Iron Triangle: Inside the Secret World of the Carlyle Group: "[T]he co-founders, David Rubenstein and Stephen Norris, were, at the time, meeting frequently at this hotel on the Upper East Side of New York called the Carlyle Hotel. And the Carlyle was very, very, very opulent and it's a very swanky establishment. It's a beautiful hotel. And these guys were looking for a name that gave them a sense of legitimacy and credibility in the industry...
"They got their start in the defense buyout business. They struggled for the first couple of years before they hired Frank Carlucci, who was the outgoing Secretary of Defense from the Reagan administration. And Carlucci brought them in the direction of defense buyouts in the late '80s, early '90s, in between the Cold War and the Gulf War, when defense properties were undervalued. And the company struck gold a couple times in that business and was able to build a very healthy buyout practice on the back of these defense LBOs, or leveraged buyouts... There are a number of transactions that the company profited from directly following the Sept. 11 attacks. The most important one was the fact that they were able to take United Defense, their crown jewel of defense holdings public shortly after the attacks. In fact, in the prospectus that they circulated, before that IPO, they cited the Sept. 11 attacks as one of the reasons why they were able to sell public stock in this company at this time. So that was all on the back of the defense build-up following Sept. 11. There are also a number of other holdings of theirs -- like at that time, they owned a company called the IT Group, which is a company that cleans up hazardous materials and won a very lucrative contract to clean up the Hart Senate Building in Washington, D.C., which had been tainted by anthrax. They also own a company called U.S. Investigative Services, USIS, which is a company that does background checks and provides varying levels of security clearance for different government employees, airline employees - things like that. Obviously their contracts went through the roof after Sept. 11. In addition to that, they own companies that do all kinds of security, different aerospace companies. So whenever there's a big defense buildup, those companies profit. So there are a number of ways that they've profited very handsomely from Sept. 11...
"[Qinetiq is the research arm of the ministry of defense in the U.K., which is essentially equivalent to DARPA [the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency] here in the U.S. And the Carlyle Group was part of that transaction, so they own part of Qinetiq. It was a very controversial transaction in the U.K., obviously. I mean, if you could try to imagine a foreign company coming in and buying DARPA from the United States. It's unimaginable. And particularly a company that's so stockpiled with very powerful former politicians...
"Carlyle [has] expand[ed] into Italy. They just bought part of Fiat's aerospace division, which was a state-controlled Italian military agency. And they are also in the running to buy out DaimlerChrysler's aerospace division in Germany...
"The Carlyle Group started working in Saudi Arabia in the early '90s through a Saudi prince, who is one of the biggest foreign investors here in the United States. And through that relationship, they started expanding their business in Saudi Arabia very significantly. One of the most important investors that they found in the kingdom was the bin Laden family, which, of course, owns the Saudi Binladin Group. It's about a $5 billion construction company -- extremely wealthy family, extremely successful company, and who officially disavowed Osama bin Laden back in the early '90s. So they had been doing business with the bin Laden family for, give or take, five or six years, when Sept. 11 happened. And suddenly, Osama bin Laden became public enemy number one. He was on the cover of all the newspapers. And it came to light that this company that was employing George Bush Sr. counted the bin Laden family among their investors. And they had to divest themselves from that relationship because of the criticism...
"[Carlylye Group] has picked up a couple media companies. They, for a while now, have owned a very popular publication called Le Figaro in France, and they have been expanding their media acquisitions..." (form Buzzflash interview with Dan Briody, author of The Iron Triangle: Inside the Secret World of the Carlyle Group).
Founders/officers include Stephen Norris (Marriott Hotels), David Rubenstein (Washington lawyer and former policy assistant to Jimmy Carter), Dan D'Aniello (Marriott), William Conway (Corporate financier), James Baker, Frank Carlucci, George Bush Senior, John Major, and Chris Ullman.
Current & former investors include George Soros and Saudi Arabian Prince Alwaleed bin Talal.
Subsidiaries & interests have included US Investigation Services, CSX Lines, BDM Consulting, Firth Rixson, Qinetiq, EC&G, United Defense, and Vinnell (sold 1997).
"Like many similar entities, Carlyle boasts a roster of bipartisan Washington power figures. Its founding and still managing partner is David Rubenstein, a former top domestic policy advisor to Jimmy Carter. Among the firmís senior advisors is Thomas "Mack" McLarty, Bill Clintonís former White House chief of staff, and Arthur Levitt, Clintonís former chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission. One of its other managing partners is William Kennard, Clintonís chairman of the Federal Communications Commission. Spokesman Ullman was the Clinton-era spokesman for the SEC." (Newsweek, June 30, 2004).
Bibliography on Carlyle Group
Briody, Dan. Carlyle's Way. Red Herring.
Briody, Dan. Iron Triangle: Inside the Secret World of the Carlyle Group (John Wiley & Sons, April 2003).
Doward, Jamie. ''Ex-Presidents Club'' Gets Fat on Conflict. The Observer, March 23, 2003.
The Sincerest Form of Flattery: Private equity firms follow in Carlyle Group's footsteps, By M. Asif Ismail, Center for Public Integrity, Nov 2004. Following the extraordinary success of the Washington-based Carlyle Group, which has built a private equity empire that's earned billions for its investors, a number of firms have lined up rosters of former government officials and high ranking military officers as they pursue companies that are in the national security business.
Investing in War: The Carlyle Group profits from government and conflict, By M. Asif Ismail, Center for Public Integrity, Nov 2004. The Carlyle Group has employed some of the most powerful figures in Washington, including former Secretary of State James Baker, former President George H.W. Bush, former Secretary of Defense Frank Carlucci and former FCC Chairman William Kennard.
5045 Wilshire Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90036
Orange juice from Brazil (1989). According to the Federal Register (July 13, 1989), the Dept. of the Treasury Customs Service no longer requires that imported juice concentrate be labeled with all countries of origin.
CASTLE & COOKE see Dole Food
CATELLUS click here for a detailed profile
100 NW Adams St, Peoria, IL 61629
telephone 309-675-1000 fax 309-675-5948
Caterpillar Far East, GPO Box 3069, Wanchai, Hong Kong
"Caterpillar" tracks replaced wheels on farm machinery in 1904; the British tried them on military tanks. The company grew in World War II by supplying the U.S. military with other heavy equipment. Began joint ventures with Mitsubishi in 1963. Now a leading manufacturer of earth-moving, construction, and materials-handling equipment, engines, and electric power generation systems, with 20 U.S. and 16 foreign plants. Had 1990 sales of $11 billion (28 percent overseas), and 56,000 employees (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992, p. 168).
Caterpillar advertised in Asian Timber (Sept. 1989); Caterpillar Far East advertised earth-moving machinery in Asian Timber (1988).
Caterpillar Financial Services received U.S. OPIC assistance in gold mining in Ghana (OPIC 1991 Annual Report).
Caterpillar has several joint ventures in Russia:
(1) UNOC Equipment and Supply (an oil field drilling equipment venture with the Russian rig producer Uralmashzavod and the Houston, Texas-based Nation-Oilwell, announced in December 1993); (2) NOVODIESEL fuel systems (announced in December 1993; Caterpillar owns 51 percent, AMOZIL owns 49 percent);
(3) NEVAMASH (a 65 percent owned manufacturing venture in St. Petersburg with Kirovsky Zavod);
(4) the NOVOTRUCK joint venture with U.S. truck manufacturer PACCAR and the Russian company AMOZIL, announced in June 1993. Caterpillar and PACCAR received U.S. OPIC financing for the NOVOTRUCK venture.
In 1993, Caterpillar direct sales to Russia were worth more than $200 million (Peoria Journal Star, Dec. 4, 1993, Dec. 17, 1993, and Feb. 8, 1994).
Caterpillar has opened offices in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (Vietnam Investment Review; Reuters, Seattle Times, May 21, 1993, p. C11; and Seattle Times, Jan. 5, 1994, p. D6).
Caterpillar and Rotec Industries hope to supply goods and services for the Three Gorges Dam in China (Cooper, Helene. Ex-Im Bank Snubs Chinese Dam Project: Decision is a Major Setback for U.S. Forms Seeking to Bid on Three Gorges, Wall Street Journal, May 31, 1996).
telephone 1-800-FOR-THEM (Catholic Communication Campaign of social services, charities, etc.)
Owned millions of acres in Brazil, used for cattle ranching.
Mt. Graham Observatory controversy in Arizona.
Spanish paper pulp mill in Guatemala. "Constructed in 1984, the plant was mothballed after an environmental impact report projected serious environmental damage" [including 16,061 acres of coniferous forest lost per year] (Earth Island Journal, Summer 1990, p. 7).
Ecuador's oil company; see Petroecuador.
CHAD-CAMEROON (DOBA BASIN) OIL PIPELINE
In 1996, Exxon (now ExxonMobil), Royal Dutch Shell, and Elf Aquitaine began the $3 billion Doba Basin pipeline project to move crude oil from 300 oil wells near Doba in southern Chad to a marine terminal at the Cameroon port of Kribi.
"The proposed Chad Export Project will develop oilfields in southern Chad. To export the crude oil to world markets from the landlocked oilfields, the oil will be transported approximately 1,070 kilometers (663 miles) by underground pipeline to a marine terminal on the coast of Cameroon... As much as one billion barrels of oil will be produced over the 25- to 30-year life of the project. Chad does not have the financial resources, expertise or oil industry to develop the project. The country has, therefore, invited outside private sector development. A consortium comprised of affiliates of ExxonMobil, Petronas and Chevron has agreed to sponsor the project with an ExxonMobil affiliate designated as the operator. Project construction costs are estimated at $3.5 billion (2,100 billion FCFA)." (Esso website http://www.esso.com/eaff/essochad/ accessed Oct 19, 2001).
Consortium members: At the beginning of the project, Exxon and Shell each held a 40 percent interest in the Doba plan; Elf held the remaining 20 percent. In November 1999, Shell and Elf Aquitaine announced they were backing out of the project, but Exxon and the World Bank reaffirmed their commitment to the project (Andrew Callus, Chad Oil Dream Fades as Shell, Elf Quit Doba, Reuters, Nov.10, 1999). In April 2000 the consortium members changed. Esso (ExxonMobil) remained the operator, but Petronas and Chevron replaced Shell and Elf. The new consortium ownership consisted of Esso (40% of the project), Petronas owned 35%, and Chevron owned 25%; the consortium was to provide or arrange financing for 97% of the project costs of $3 billion, develop the oil field, pipeline and marine terminal, operate the project, and deliver oil to world markets (Esso website http://www.esso.com/eaff/essochad/ accessed Oct 19, 2001).
In June 2000, the World Bank and Lender Group approved the pipeline project; the World Bank was to provide financing to Chad and Cameroon to enable equity participation in pipeline, provide technical assistance on revenue management to Chad and Cameroon, and act as a catalyst for additional investment in Chad and Cameroon.
"The funding requirements for the oilfield development project and the two pipeline companies (TOTCO and COTCO) would be met as follows: Approximately 60% of the project cost will come directly from the Consortium partners and affiliates. Approximately 37% will be obtained through market rate loans arranged through the International Finance Corporation, export credit agencies, and commercial sources. The governments of Chad and Cameroon wish to make equity investments in the two pipeline operating companies. Cameroon will only invest in COTCO. The value of these investments will represent about 3% of the project cost. To fund their investments in the pipeline operating companies, the two host countries have applied for a total of approximately $115 million (69 billion FCFA) in loans from the World Bank Group's International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) as well as the European Investment Bank (EIB) (Esso website http://www.esso.com/eaff/essochad/ accessed Oct 19, 2001).
Pipeline Opens: Oil production in Chad began in June and oil started flowing through the new pipeline in July. The official inauguration was in October. "Civic groups will observe a day of mourning to mark Chad's debut as an oil-producing country, saying the resource will only "further strengthen the hands of repression." On Friday, President Idriss Deby will symbolically open the oil spigot at multi-billion dollar facilities in the southern Doba basin, as international media and 600 guests including several heads of state look on... A consortium led by ExxonMobil with 40 percent, followed by Malaysia's Petronas (35 percent) and Chevron (25 percent) spearheaded the multi-billion project to begin exploiting Chad's oil reserves, which includes a pipeline stretching more than 1,000 kilometers (650 miles) to Cameroon's offshore Kribi oil terminal. In a plan approved after initial misgivings by the World Bank, Deby's government has agreed to submit to public scrutiny of how the newfound wealth from an estimated 900 million barrels over the next 25 years will be distributed. The annual revenues of 80 million dollars (70 million euros) -- initial projections point to an output of 225,000 barrels per day -- will increase Chad's government revenues by half, according to the World Bank. The government has set up a revenue watchdog body and passed a law stipulating that 80 percent of the new petro-dollars must be allocated to priority development projects in health, education, agriculture and infrastructure." (Agence France-Presse, Civic Groups Declare Chad Pipeline Inauguration "Day of Mourning", ClariNet, Oct 9, 2003).
World Bank Chad Pipeline website.
Press coverage: First Shipment of Crude Oil from the Chad-Cameroon Pipeline and Post-inaugural Chad coverage and analysis from BBC, VOA, Bloomberg, IRIN, New Zealand Herald, Ottawa Citizen, Associated Press, etc.
One Champion Plaza, Stamford, CT 06921
Champion Coated Paper began in Ohio in 1893; Champion Fibre began in Ohio in 1906; US Plywood was established in 1919.
Champion International Corporation was created in 1967 by the merger of US Plywood and Champion Paper & Fibre; acquisitions of other companies continued through the 1960s and 1970s.
In 1984, Champion bought St. Regis for $1.8 billion.
In 1989, Champion sold 300,000 shares (almost eight percent of the total) of its stock to Berkshire Hathaway (Warren Buffett); in the 1990s, the investment firm Loews began buying Champion stock, and held 16 percent in 1992 (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 185).
In the year 2000, Champion was acquired by International Paper for about $7 billion. UPM-Kymmene had also tried to acquire Champion.
How Champion acquired parts of the Northern Pacific Railroad land grant: Anaconda was called the Amalgamated Copper Company until 1915; it had lumber mills at Bonner (Malone, Malone, Roeder, and Lang, 1991, p.325). Amalgamated purchased more than a million acres from Northern Pacific; it was "Northern Pacific's only sale of granted timber lands of any importance" in Montana (U.S. Bureau of Corporations, 1913-1914, Part 1, p.234,241). The sale was actually to a subsidiary of Amalgamated (Part 1, p.18). Amalgamated owned over a million acres of timberland and 100,000 acres of non-timbered land, all in Montana (Part 1, p.153,166). It was estimated that 80 to 90 percent of Amalgamated's land was "natural forest land, i.e., more valuable for growing trees than for agricultural purposes" (Part 2-3, p.157). Amalgamated owned 1,112,000 acres in Montana; 4,000 acres in Idaho (Part 2-3, p.173). NP and Amalgamated (along with "4 relatively small holders) held 79.3 percent of the privately owned timber in Montana (Part 1, p.153). "In mid-1972, Anaconda sold its lumber operation, including 670,500 acres of Montana forestland, to Champion International for $117 million." In 1977, ARCO acquired Anaconda itself (Malone, Roeder, and Lang, 1991, p.325-326). In November 1993, Champion sold 867,000 acres of Montana timberland containing 2.4 billion board feet of timber to Plum Creek Timber, a 1989 spin-off from Burlington Northern Railroad, the Northern Pacific's corporate successor. The deal included two mills, which Plum Creek immediately turned over to Stimson Lumber of Portland, Oregon (Devlin, Aug. 1, 1993; Dow Jones, July 19 and Nov. 2, 1993). For more information on the railroad land grants, visit the Railroads & Clearcuts website.
Timberland ownership in the 1990s
Source of data
Wood Technology 1997-98 North American Factbook, p. 165.
Wood Technology 1997-98 North American Factbook, p. 165.
Wood Technology 1997-98 North American Factbook, p. 165.
Wood Technology 1997-98 North American Factbook, p. 165.
Forest Industries 1991-92 North American Factbook, p. 180-181.
US Gulf States
Forest Industries 1991-92 North American Factbook, p. 180-181.
Mobile Register, Oct. 27, 1996, p. 7,17.
Wood Technology 1997-98 North American Factbook, p. 165.
Brazil: Champion Papel e Celulose was listed in the International Directory of Corporate Affiliations 1991. Champion Papel was listed in another directory as having 110,000 acres in Brazil with an integrated mill in Mogi Guacu (International Pulp & Paper Directory 1991). Forty percent of the paper was exported to the United States in 1987. See Tropical Echoes, vol. 3, Mar. 1989 (Rainforest Action Movement, Ann Arbor, MI). Champion itself claimed (in its 1992 Annual Report, p. 5, 21, and 41) to have 229,000 acres in Brazil, and to have had a 1992 Brazilian profit margin of 33 percent. Addresses included Rodavia SP 340, Km 171, 13840, Mogi Guacu, SP, Brazil [and] Rue Libero Badaro 377, 80 Andar, 01009 Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Canada: Subsidiary Weldwood of Canada, 1055 W. Hastings St, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Canada: Joint venture Cariboo Pulp & Paper (Quesnel, British Columbia) was owned by Weldwood and Daishowa-Marubeni International; there is also a mill at Hinton, Alberta (Champion International 1992 Form 10-K, p. 3).
CHANG LINH LUMBER CO LTD.
Chang Linh received a ten-year logging concession in Xieng Khouang and Bolikhamsai, two central provinces, from the Laotian government; 10,000 to 12,000 cubic meters are expected to be cut each year, and processed in mills set up in Laos (Asian Timber, June 1992, p.7). The concession was granted despite a May 30, 1992 ban on the export of timber by provincial authorities or private companies; even Laotian mills are supposed to handle only logs cut with the central government's approval. At the beginning of the 20th century, Laos had an estimated 17 million hectaroes of forest; by 1981, there were 11 million left, and this was expected to fall to 6 million by the end of the century (Asian Timber, June 1992, p.12).
CHESAPEAKE HARDWOOD PRODUCTS see Weyerhaeuser
SEE ALSO: PITTSBURG & MIDWAY COAL MINING (Chevron subsidiary). and TEXACO.
225 Bush St., San Francisco CA 94104, telephone 415-894-7700
Chevron Canada Resources, 500 Fifth Ave. SW, Calgary, Alberta T2P 0L7, telephone 403-234-5000
In 1984, Standard Oil of California (SOCAL) changed its name to Chevron. Chevron bought Gulf Oil in 1984 (and then dismantled it), and Tenneco's oil and gas operations in 1988. Pennzoil acquired almost ten percent of Chevron (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992).
Chevron's Texaco acquisition approved. After almost a year, the Federal Trade Commission finally approved Chevron's $39-billion purchase of Texaco (which includes $6 billion of assumed debt). However, until shareholders approve, and also, before a huge asset sale is completed, the merger will not be completely finalized. Federal regulators made the asset sale a condition that must be met for final approval. The new firm will be named ChevronTexaco Corp., creating the second-largest oil firm in the nation and the fourth-largest in the world. (Worldoil.com, October 2001).
Asia-Pacific Texaco and Chevron own Caltex, which began overseas marketing in Saudi Arabia in 1936, and now operates in 58 countries in Asia and the Pacific Rim (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992, p. 515). Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI) is an affiliate involved in oil exploration and production in Sumatra. CPI Chairman Julius Tahija is active in the World Wildlife Fund (Chevron World, Spring/Summer 1990). See Caltex entry.
East China Sea China has leased East China Sea areas to Chevron, Texaco, and a venture between Cluff Oil Ltd. of Hong Kong and Primeline Petroleum Corporation (Wall Street Journal, Dec. 16, 1993, p. A14).
Ecudaor: Texaco arrived in Ecuador in the 1960's, drilled more than 300 wells and built a network of pipelines and separation plants and was the lead company in projects that produced 1.5 billion barrels of crude oil. Texaco left Ecuador in 1992. Some 30,000 are people affected by 18.5 billion gallons of waste dumped by Teaxaco into open, unlined pits (rather than reinjected back into the wells). A lawsuit was filed in 1993 with plaintiffs claining that Texaco made more than $20 billion in profits but would have had to spend up to $5 billion to reinject the waste back into the ground. Texaco spent $40 million to cap 200 pits and the Ecuadorean government certified the cleanup in 1998. In 2002 the US Court of Appeals in New York ruled that the case should be heard in Ecuador, but that "any final ruling and financial penalty imposed against ChevronTexaco would be enforceable in the United States." See Texaco Goes on Trial in Ecuador Pollution Case, by JUAN FORERO, New York Times, Oct 23, 2003. Former Ecuadorean Supreme Court Justice Alberto
"Former Ecuadorean Supreme Court Justice Alberto Wray, with the assistance of an American legal team, wants California-based ChevronTexaco to pay for cleanup and medical monitoring costs, which the plaintiffs say could reach $1 billion... Among the 30,000 plaintiffs are an estimated 5,000 [Secoya, Cofan and Huaorani] Indians... The plaintiffs' lawyers originally wanted the case tried in U.S. courts, arguing the Ecuadorean government's dependence on oil revenues would make the country's courts unlikely to deliver justice. Oil exports account for about 40 percent of Ecuador's revenue. The case was sent to Ecuador in August 2002 when the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York ruled it should be heard where the damage allegedly occurred..." (Associated Press, In feathers and paint, Amazonians sue U.S. oil giant, October 22, 2003).
"[M]ore than 18 billion gallons of waste water dumped and 16 million gallons of crude oil spilled... ChevronTexaco has maintained that one of its subsidiaries, TexPet, was only a minority partner in the consortium responsible for the drilling, with the Ecuadorean state oil company, Petroecuador, the majority shareholder. The company has said that its practices were standard for the time and that it broke no Ecuadorean laws..." (ChevronTexaco Pollution Trial Begins, by T. Christian Miller, Times, Oct 23, 2003).
Iraq: "Exxon Mobil Corp., ChevronTexaco Corp. and Valero Energy Corp. confirmed Friday that they had been subpoenaed for records related to a United Nations oil-for-food program in Iraq. The U.S. attorney for the Southern District of New York is investigating alleged improprieties in the program. A spokeswoman for Exxon Mobil said the subpoena covered only documents related to the program and did not accuse the Irving, Texas-based oil giant of wrongdoing. "We are in receipt of the subpoena, and we are responding accordingly," Prem Nair said. Exxon Mobil declined to say when it received the subpoena. At ChevronTexaco, "we have received a request for information from the U.S. attorney," said Jeff Moore, a spokesman for the San Ramon, Calif.-based company. "We are cooperating." San Antonio-based Valero Energy Corp. was a major buyer of Iraqi oil under the U.N. program. "We intend to cooperate fully with the investigation," spokeswoman Mary Rose Brown said. The U.N. program was designed to help provide food and medical supplies to Iraqis after the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Proceeds from limited oil sales were supposed to help ease the effect of U.N. sanctions against the regime of Saddam Hussein. Allegations of corruption surfaced when an Iraqi newspaper published a list of about 270 former government and U.N. officials, activists and journalists suspected of profiting from Iraqi oil sales under the food program. The investigative arm of Congress reported in March that Hussein's government skimmed $10.1 billion from the program from 1997 to 2002. The program was shut down last year." (Oil Firms' Records Subpoenaed: U.S. seeks files from Exxon, ChevronTexaco and Valero in probe of U.N. program in Iraq, Los Angeles Times, June 19, 2004).
Kazakhstan A Chevron joint venture being planned with Kazakhstan to develop the Tengiz oil field (Reuters, May 8, 1992). Negotiations lasted six years; in 1992 a final agreement was reached for a $20 billion Tengiz and Korolyov development project, to begin in 1993 (Seattle Times, Dec. 31, 1992, p. H1). The chairman of Chevron and the president of Kazakhstan signed a 40-year, $20 billion agreement in April 1993; it was said to be the biggest joint venture so far in a former Soviet republic. The Tengiz oil field, one of the world's largest (with 20 to 25 billion barrels of oil, with 6 to 9 billion barrles recoverable), could be worth more than $325 million a year to Chevron. There is also the smaller Korolev oil field. Critics in the former Soviet Union said the deal favored the Chevron and labeled it "the robbery of the century." Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev said it "showed the world that it can trust Kazakhstan" as an investment partner (Associated Press, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, April 7, 1993, p. B6,B10).
Mining Chevron is involved in several mining operations. In 1978 and 1981, Chevron tried to acquire AMAX (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p.102); in March 1981 (as Standard Oil of California), Chevron owned 20 percent of Amax; and it bid $4 billion to acquire the other 80 percent (Time, Mar. 23, 1981, p. 72).
Nigeria In 1958, Shell discovered petroleum near the Niger River delta in Nigeria; since then, Shell has extracted $30 billion worth of oil and natural gas. For two decades, Chevron has also been producing oil in the Nigerian rainforest (Chevron World, Spring/Summer 1990). Shell, Mobil, Chevron, Texaco, and other oil companies generate 80 percent of Nigeria's annual revenue. Since 1993, the local Ogoni people have been suppressed; 20 Ogoni towns have been destroyed, 1,800 people killed, and 50,000 left homeless. The Nigerian government's hanged Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other Ogoni peoples activists on November 10, 1995. Shell has been condemned for its role; over 300 people protested at Shell's New York headquarters on November 13, 1995. A few days after the execution, Shell announced a new $4 billion Nigerian natural gas plan; ELF, and Agit are also involved. (Interview with Human Rights Watch on National Public Radio on Nov. 16; RAN Action Alert, No. 115, Dec. 1995).
In May 1998, Chevron transported Nigerian soldiers to their Parabe oil platform and barge in the Niger Delta, which dozens of community activists had occupied. Soon after landing in Chevron-leased helicopters, the Nigerian military shot to death two protesters, Jola Ogungbeje and Aroleka Irowaninu, and wounded several others. Eleven activists were detained for three weeks http://www.pacifica.org/programs/nigeria/drilling.html
Human Rights Watch report documented Nigerian soldiers using a Chevron helicopter and boats attacked villagers in two small communities in the Delta, Opia and Ikenyan, killing at least four people and burning most of the villages to the ground. More than fifty people are still missing. In a letter addressed to the survivors of the attack, Chevron said that this had been a "counterattack" resulting from a confrontation between local youths and soldiers posted to a Chevron drilling rig (Human Rights Watch, Oil Companies Complicit in Nigerian Abuses, Feb 1999). Click here for Chevron's defense. Pacifica Radio documentary Drilling And Killing: Chevron And Nigeria's Oil Dictatorship.
U.S. Congress members (Representatives Dennis Kucinich, Maxine Waters, Cynthia McKinney, and Donald Payne) sent a letter to U.S. House Committee on International Relations regarding Chevron complicity in military killing of demonstrators at an oil platform in the Niger Delta in May 1998 and of people in the villages of Opia and Ikiyan in Nigeria in January 1999 (Jeffrey St. Clair and Alexander Cockburn, Nature & Politics column, Eat the State! April 28, 1999, p. 4).
Papua New Guinea Iagifu-Hedinia oil field in Papua New Guinea (Oil & Gas Journal, June 5, 1989, p. 42; and Aug. 28, 1989, p. 28). Has 168-mile pipeline running from the southern highlands rainforest on the Kikori and Nakari Rivers and across the Aird River Delta to the southeast coast of Papua New Guinea (Chevron World, Spring/Summer 1990; Oil & Gas Journal, June 12, 1989, p. 57 and June 19, 1989, p. 31). The pipeline runs along the bed of the Kikori River and crosses mangroves at the coast (Rainforest Action Network Action Alert No. 71, April 1992). There is a refinery at Lake Kutubu. In April 1991, local natives blockaded the road at the Aio River near this refinery and commandeered a Chevron company vehicle. The protesters called for talks to resolve Chevron's failure to deliver promised infrastructure such as water tanks, schools, and clinics. Police reopened the road (Rainforest Action Network Action Alert, Nos. 71 and 73, April and June 1992).
Also the Juha field in Papua New Guinea (Oil & Gas Journal, Aug. 28, 1989, p. 28).
Rocky Mountain Front Chevron and Fina Oil and Chemical are drilling for oil on national forest land in the northern part of the Rocky Mountain Front in northwestern Montana, between Glacier National Park, the Great Bear and Bob Marshall Wilderness Areas, and the Blackfeet Indian researvation. The area is important to native peoples and to endangered species. Appeals by environmentalists and natives of oil and gas leases granted by the U.S. Forest Service delayed drilling in 1991. Chevron proposed drilling on Goat Mountain in the southern Badger-Two Medicine (On the Front: Journal of the Mountain Front, Spring 1993, p. 11). See also Badger-Two Medicine, The Last Stronghold: Sacred Land of the Grizzly, Wolf, and Blackfeet Indian, by Bob Yetter, published by the Badger Chapter (of the Glacier-Two Medicine Alliance), Box 8374, Missoula MT 59807, 406-243-2628. The Alliance can be reached at Box 181, East Glacier MT 59434. The Blackfeet can be reached through Buster Yellow Kidney, Pikuni Traditionalists Association, Box 611, Browning MT 59417, or through Floyd Heavy Runner, Blackfeet Brave Dog Society, Box 98, Heart Butee MT 59448.
Chevron and Manville Sales' Stillwater River, Montana operation is the only source of platinum and palladium in the western hemisphere (Montana: a History of Two Centuries, by M.P.Malone et al, 1991, p. 327).
CHG PLYWOOD Sdn Bhd
One of the top ten exporters of plywood from Malaysia in 1991 (Asian Timber, April 1992, p.8).
Japanese chip mill operation in Tarakan, east Kalmantan, Indonesia (SKEPHI, 1990, Selling Our Common Heritage).
One East Fourth St., Cincinnati OH 45202
Begun in Costa Rica in 1899 by the merger of Boston Fruit with Tropical Trading Co; based in Boston for a hundred years as United Fruit.
United Fruit blew up some of American Banana's Central American facilities in order to preserve its domination of the banana export business (American Banana Co. v. United Fruit Co., 213 U.S. 347 (1909).
United Fruit head Eli Black committed suicide in 1975, as a $1.25 million bribe to the Economic Minster of Honduras to obtain a reduction in the Honduran export tax on bananas became known; two weeks later, the Honduran government fell. Investigations by the U.S. Congress and SEC uncovered more than 350 U.S. corporations' bribes (Brennglass, 1983, p.159-160).
In the 1980s Chiquita had nearly half of the world's banana market; Chiquita also sells meat (packaged under many labels), including John Morrell, where there are many labor strikes (Everybody's Business, 1990, p. 31).
American Financial Corporation increased its holdings of Chiquita to 45 percent in 1984. See also entry for AFC.
Involved in bananas, palm oil, and plastics manufacturing in Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. Subsidiaries in 1985 included COBAL, Plymer United, UNIMAR, and Balboa Shipping (The Central American Fact Book, by Barry and Preusch, Grove Press, 1986).
Has left soils contaminated with copper and unusable for agriculture. African palm is often planted because its deep roots reach below copper deposits (Christopher van Arsdale, "Banana Development in Costa Rica," Multinational Monitor, Jan/Feb. 1991, p. 15-19).
Chiquita was named one of 1995's worst corporations for AFC's political activities and its involvement in a DBCP pesticides class action lawsuit on behalf of 10,000 banana workers in 11 countries (Russell Mokhiber and Andrew Wheat, Shameless: 1995's 10 Worst Corporations, Multinational Monitor, Dec. 1995, p. 9-16).
See also Business in the Rainforests: Corporations, Deforestation and Sustainability, by Conrad B. MacKerron (Investor Responsibility Research Center, Washington DC, 1993).
1201 Toronto Dominion Tower, Edmonton Centre, Edmonton, Alberta T5J 2Z1
Chieftain Exploration, Royex House, Aldermanbury Square, London EC2V 7LD, England
North Sea operations (Whole World Oil Directory 1991, p. 140).
CHINA INTERNATIONAL TRUST AND INVESTMENT (CITIC)
Capital Mansion, 6, Xinuan Nanlu, Beijing, 10004, China
telephone 86 10 6466 8866 fax: 86 10 6466 1186 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Wang Jun, Chairman. Qin Xiao, President.
Former U.S. Secretary of State George Schultz and former Federal Reserve Bank of New York chairman Maurice Greenberg have served on Citic's international board of advisors.
CITIC is China's largest financial and industrial conglonmerate, with 60,000 employees and $23 billion in assets (73 percent finance, 10 percent industries, 6 percent real estate, 4 percent telecommunications, 4 percent commerce, and 3 percent transport). CITIC's industrial assets include raw materials (64 percent), energy (17 percent), and auto and machinery (12 percent) (Mufson, Steven, Washington Post, March 26, 1997, p. A21).
CITIC was founded in October 1979 and is a state-owned enterprise under the direct leadership of the State Council. CITIC owns 37 companies, including CITIC Hong Kong (Holdings) Ltd., the Ka Wah Bank Ltd. in Hong Kong and those in the United States, Canada, Australia and Germany. CITIC has offices in Tokyo, New York and Frankfurt (http://www.citic.com/home.html, June 1998).
Subsidiaries and affiliates:
Asia Satellite (minority interest).
Cathay Pacific airlines (25 percent, through CITIC Pacific).
CITIC Hong Kong Holdings Ltd.
CITIC Canada, #3063 Three Bentall Centre, 595 Burrard Street, PO Box 49102, Vancouver, B.C., Canada V7X 1G4, (604) 681-7204, Fax: (604) 681-7230, Email email@example.com. Paper and sawmill in Canada.
CITIFOR, Seattle WA. Timberland, mill, and offices in Thurston County, Seattle and Port Angeles, Washington State;
Oregon, Alaska States, Chile, Venezuela, and Russia. See Citifor entry.
Citifor Holdings, Chile. Door plant.
CitiSteel USA steel mill in Claymont, Delaware.
Daxie Island. CITIC owns this island south of Shanghai, where it plans to build a superport with Bechtel.
Ka Wah Bank Ltd., Hong Kong.
Poly Technologies (arms dealer).
Shanghai Shenlin Wood Floor Co. and Wooden Door Companies. Joint ventures with Citifor and New England Classic Interiors (NECI) of USA.
Mufson, Steven. To Chinese Firm, Access Becomes a Key Commodity. Washington Post, March 26, 1997, p. A21.
CAFCA, Sept. 1996 decisions, http://canterbury.cyberplace.org.nz/community/CAFCA/cafca96/sept96.htm.
CHINA NORTH INDUSTRIES see Norinco
(Henry) Kissinger Associates and China Ventures (which has joint ventures with the Chinese state bank) represent multinational corporations by opening doors to foreign investments; see Washington Post, Aug, 29, 1989; New York Times, Apr. 30, 1989; Wall Street Journal, Sept. 15, 1989; and Extra!: The Magazine of FAIR, Oct-Nov. 1989.
Tokyo Bldg, 7-3 Marunouchi-2chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0005
Offices in Osaka, Minamata, Okayama, Yokohama, Nagoya, Fukuoka, Moriyama, Shiga, Ichihara.
Kyushu Chemical Industry Company
Chisso America Incorporated, 1185 Avenue of the Americas, New York telephone 212-302-0500 fax 212-302-0643
Chisso Hong Kong
Guangzhou Es Fiber, Guangzhou,China
Shanghai Jin Chang Engineering Plastics Company
Petrochemical and plastics manufacturer which dumped mercury into Minamata Bay, Japan, causing massive health and ecological effects beginning in the 1950s.
On April 26, 1993, the Vietnam America Trade & Development Consulting Co. became the first American company to officially open an office in Vietnam since the end of the war in 1975. Chrysler is a client. In December 1992, President Bush relaxed the U.S.-imposed trade embargo to allow Americans to open offices, hire employees, and sign (but not execute) commerical contracts; President Clinton has maintained that the embargo would continue until there is a satisfactory accounting of American missing-in-action casulaties (Seattle Times, Apr. 26, 1993, p. B7).
The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on Chrysler in 1991-92 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
CH-4002, Basel, Switzerland
telephone 011-41-61-696-28-64 fax 011-41-61-696-43-54
444 Saw Mill River Rd, Ardsley NY 10502
telephone 914-479-5000 fax 914-478-1201
Jurong Town, Box 264, Singapore 9161
Geigy began with spices and dyes in the 18th century; Ciba was Switzerlands' largest chemical company by 1900. Combined with Sandoz to form Basel AG, in order to compete with the German chemical trust I.G. Farben after World War I (dissolved after World War II). Ciba and Geigy merged in 1970. Now operates in 60 countries; its 1990 sales of 19.7 billion Swiss francs came from pharmaceuticals (32 percent), agricultural products like pesticides and veterinary drugs (21 percent), dyestuffs and chemicals (14 percent), chemical additives (10 percent), and plastics (9 percent). Owns Biocene Co., Ciba-Corning Diagnostics, Cord Labs, and Ohaus (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1992, p. 176).
Ciba-Geigy is a member of the National Wildlife Federation's Corporate Conservation Council.
The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on Ciba-Geigy in 1991-92 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
Ciba-Geigy's manufacturing of the DDT successor Galecron was halted after activists, governments, and the World Health Organization issued warnings and protested over its health and safety effects (other Ciba-Geigy toxins include clioquinol, Butazolidin, and Tanderil; see Moskowitz, The Global Marketplace, 1987, p. 142-145).
Ciba's dysentery drug clioquinol, promoted in the 1950s and 1960s, afflicted thousands of Japanese with SMON (subacute-myelo-optico-neuropathy): by 1981, Ciba Geigy had paid out $490 million to SMON victims. In 1985, the drug was taken off the market (Multinational Monitor, Apr. 1993, p. 30-31).
Tested herbicides on humans in Egypt and India ("Toxic Ten," Mother Jones, Jan/Feb 1993).
Advertises in Asian Timber (1988) and Asian Forestry Products and Services; has representatives in Indonesia, Thailand, etc.
See The Basel Marraige: History of the Ciba-Geigy Merger, by Paul Erni (Zurich: Neue Zurcher Zeitung, 1979). Profiled by Holley Knaus in Multinational Monitor (Apr. 1993, p. 30-33).
CITIBANK see Citicorp
CITIC see China International Trust and Investment
399 Park Ave, New York NY 10043
telephone 212-559-1000 fax 212-527-3277
Founded in 1812 by the first commissioner of the U.S. Treasury. Operating in London by 1902 and Buenos Aires by 1914; had a hundred foreign offices by 1939. James Rockefeller became president of the bank in 1952. Now the largest U.S. bank and a leading issuer of credit cards. Citibank has proudly pointed out in its advertisements that a large percentage of Americans owe money to its VISA, MasterCard, Carte Blanche, and Diners Club. Now operates in 90 countries; its $232 billion in assets are spread from the U.S. (57 percent), Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (21 percent), Asia and the Pacific (13 percent), and Latin America (7 percent). Owns Quotron (financial information). Citibank is a major force in international finance; its loan exposure in foreign countries, especially in the Third World, became a problem in the 1980s (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992, p. 183). Citicorp is one of the five corporations used as case studies in Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations and the New World Order, by Richard J. Barnet and John Cavanagh (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994).
Despite its assets of $232 billion, Citicorp/Citibank receives financial support and political risk insurance from the U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation, a "corporation" controlled by the U.S. Department of State. Some of Citicorp's OPIC-assisted projects are banking in Pakistan, Argentina, India, Indonesia; a pulp and paper operations in Argentina and Brazil; a nickel mine in Colombia, vehicle leasing in Thailand; polyethylene production in Venezuela; and fishmeal production in Chile (OPIC 1991 Annual Report; see the OPIC entry in the Development Agencies and Multilateral Development Banks section of this Directory).
Along with Shell and Scott Paper, Citicorp owns Santa Fe Forestal y Industria, a $460 million pulp plant in Nacimiento, Chile (New York Times and Seattle P-I, Nov. 28, 1991). The Santa Fe Group is a joint venture of Royal Dutch Shell, Scott Paper and Citibank involved in genetically engineered eucalyptus trees for two plantations in Chile. The plantations that receive the trees will eventually provide the Santa Fe pulping plant with all the raw materials it needs to generate an anticipated $100 million a year profit. With an initial investment of $28 million in the industry, Santa Fe vice president Nick Whalley admits that "the short term profitability is not good but we project substantial financial returns two to three years from now" (Source is "Chile: Gen. Engineered Eucalyptus," excerpted from "Biotech Bulletin - 12/9/92," in Econet env.biotech, which cites David Lascelles, "Where Paper Profits are Growing Up a Gum Tree," Financial Times, Dec. 4, 1992).
Citibank established a consumer bank in India in 1987; it now has $1.7 billion in deposits and had 1991 profits of $46 million (Fortune, Nov. 16, 1992, p. 129).
About to receive a license to open an office in Vietnam, according to Vietnamese officials (Reuters, Seattle Times, May 21, 1993, p. C11). Has opened offices in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (Seattle Times, Jan. 5, 1994, p. D6).
7272 Columbia Center, 701 Fifth Ave, Seattle WA 98104
telephone 206-622-3770 Fax 206-622-6714 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Vice president Rob Rice (Alaska Business Monthly, Oct. 1993, p. 78)
Citifor is the Chinese government timber subsidiary of China International Trust and Investment (CITIC), China's largest financial and industrial conglomerate. See CITIC entry.
Citifor is a wholly-owned subsidiary of CITIC. It was founded in 1984. Citifor's business is primarily concentrated in the timber industry with investments in timber and timberlands in Washington, Oregon and Alaska States, Chile, and Russia. (http://www.citic.com/home.html, June 1998).
Citifor in Washington State
Citifor has a mill and four tracts of land in Washington State, three of them totaling 3,442 acres in Thurston County. Purchases in 1993 and 1994 cost $34 million (Washington Post, Mar. 26, 1997, p. A21).
Citifor exported trees cut by Trillium Corporation in Canyon Lake Creek, above the Nooksack River in the North Cascades, Washington; timber is to be exported by Citifor of China (Ross, Andy. Proposed logging of old growth forest at Canyon Creek: Whatcom County land owned by Trillium and trees by Citifor of China. Whatcom Watch, Oct. 1994, p. 9).
Port Angeles, Washington log export yard. Manager is Doyle Harris (pers. comm., Kiko Anderson, 940817).
"The big news in big developments has been the latest proposal for developing the old power works near Maytown [near Olympia WA]. Owned by timber and land speculator Citifor, the 200-acre site on Tilley Road has been suggested for the manufacture of composite wood structural beams. Picture a single 400,000 sq. ft. building and some 1,100 truck trips each week, and you get a sense of the scale. Proponents are suggesting the county designate the plant as a "resource dependent" use with appropriate allowable use changes made in the county's rural zoning ordinance." (Peter Moulton, Maytown Monolith, in Green Screens, Olympia WA, April 1998).
Citifor was involved in a large eminent domain case involving a log yard and marine terminal at the Port of Grays Harbor, Washington. The case spawned two appeals, both in the Port's favor: Port of Grays Harbor v. Citifor, 123 Wn. 2d 610 (1994); Port of Grays Harbor v. Bankruptcy Estate of Roderick Timber Company, 73 Wn. App. 334 (1994).
Citifor in New Zealand:
In September 1996, the New Zealand state-owned Forestry Corporation's assets, including the 188,000-hectare Kaingaroa pine plantation were sold for $2 billion to a consortium consisting of Fletcher Challenge Forests (37.5 percent), Citifor (37.5 percent), and Brierly Investments (25 percent). The new consortium, Central North Island Forestry Partnership, intends to cut almost 40 percent more per year than the New Zealand Forestry Corporation did (NZ Forestry, Issue 13, Oct-Nov 1996, http://www.nzforestry.co.nz/html/issue_13.1.html. Citifor paid $409 million for its share. Months after the transaction, the chairman of Brierly said the plantation had been acquired for 30 percent less than it was worth (http://canterbury.cyberplace.org.nz/community/CAFCA/cafca96/sept96.htm).
Citifor in Venezuela:
Wood products company Forestal Terranova, controlled by Compania Inversiones Suizandina, will acquire 59,000 hectares of pine forest in Venezuela for $38 million through its subsidiary companies Andinos and Sociedad Forestal Millalemu. Terranova purchased the land in association with Corporacion Venezolana de Guayana (CVG) and its subsidiary, Productos Forestales de Oriente (Proforca). The purchase gives Terranova 30 years to harvest the trees and also the option to buy a wood panel plant on the property. Terranova will use the loan to finance the purchase and to build a door panels plant in partnership with Chilean company Citifor Holdings. Terranova said this option would require $64 million, [other reports estimated $70 million], $19.2 million of which would be provided by holding company Citifor and which could translate to sales of $35 million by the second half of 1998. The 14 banking institutions which will extend the credit include local and foreign banks such as Banco de Santiago and the Chase Manhattan Bank (El Mercurio, El Diario, May 28 and June 10, 1997).
Citifor in Chile
Chilean logging contract next to nature reserve (pers. comm., Kiko Anderson, 940817).
Citifor in Alaska
In 1988, Koncor (created in 1977 by Ouzinkie Native Corporation and Natives of Kodiak) joined forces with Citifor to form Citikon, which sells Alaska timber to all the Pacific Rim markets (Alaska Business Monthly, Oct. 1993, p. 78). Koncor has logging operations on Admiralty, Montague, and Afognak Islands (Alaska Business Monthly, Oct. 1992, p. 5), and sells mainly to Japan, Korea, China, and Taiwan (Alaska Journal of Commerce, Oct. 18, 1993, p. 1). See also entry for Koncor.
Citifor in China:
Shanghai Shenlin consists of Shanghai Shenlin Wood Floor Co.& Shanghai Shenlin Wooden Door Co.. They are joint ventures with Citifor and New England Classic Interiors (NECI) of USA respectively. We specialize in making high quality wood products with the state of the art equipment from Germany, England, Italy and the USA. Our products can be found in the Japanese home as well as in apartments, hotels, religious buildings, offices and entertainment centers. In Shanghai, Shenlin is one of largest decorative wood products manufacturers, which can be demonstrated by our annual production capacity: kiln dry capacity: 16,000 cubic meters per year; wood floor capacity: 500,000 square meters year; wood door capacity: 50,000 units per year; others including mouldings, wall paneling: 3000 cubic meters per year. (http://www.sh.com/bulit/chbuild/tiayi016.htm).
Oil drilling in the Oriente of Ecuador (Rainforest Action Network Action Alert, No. 50, July 1990).
CITY RESOURCES LTD.
Feasibility study for the Graham Island gold deposit in British Columbia, Canada. City Resources Ltd. is negotiating with BHP Gold Mines Ltd. for joint venture for the Metelen, Wala, Kulu, and Daluava prospects in central new Britain, Papua New Guinea (Minerals Industry International, Jan. 1989, p. 3).
In the Fall of 1994, Liz Claiborne stopped contracting clothing assembly in Burma (Eric Sigliano, Bauer's Burma Road, Seattle Weekly, Feb. 1, 1995, p. 16-17).
Larry Dohrs, Seattle Committee for a Free Burma
Steve Mills, Sierra Club international programs representative, Washington DC.
The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on Clorox in 1991-92 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
CLUFF RESOURCES PLC
Sa'dah and Tabaq/Awtaq prospecting in Yemen with Albert Abela (GULF) Inc. The joint venture is named Cluff Abela Minerals (Yemen) Ltd., or CAM (Mining Magazine, Sept. 1991, p. 176).
China has leased East China Sea areas to Chevron, Texaco, and a venture between Cluff Oil Ltd. of Hong Kong and Primeline Petroleum Corporation (Wall Street Journal, Dec. 16, 1993, p. A14).
Coddington Court, Coddington, Ledbury, Hereforedshire HR8 1JL, England
Operations in UK, France, Holland, Burma, and Vietnam (Whole World Oil Directory 1991, p. 140).
Engineering firm. Western Pacific Constructors is a joint venture between Fluor Daniel and CMPS to provide engineering and construction services to the primary aluminum industry in Australia and New Zealand. Western's first project is a contract with Tomago to expand an aluminum smelter near Newcastle, Australia (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991, p. 106).
400 drink brands including soft drinks, juices, coffee, tea, etc (brands include Coca-Cola, Fanta, Sprite, Barq's, Odwalla, Fruitopia, Minute Maid, Powerade, Dasani) and distribution of Group Danone's Dannon and Sparkletts, Crush, Dr Pepper, Schweppes.
The company boasts that "consumers in more than 200 countries enjoy the Company's beverages at a rate exceeding 1 billion servings each day." (July 22, 2004 news release).
The World's Best Brand, by John Huey, Fortune, May 31, 1993, p. 44-54.
Rainforest/orange juice: Coca-Cola has plantations in Honduras and Brazil for its Minute Maid orange juice. Its scheme for converting Belizean rainforest to orange plantations was put on hold due to pressure from environmentalists. Coca-Cola donated 42,000 acres to the Program for Belize (which is funded by Massachusetts Audubon and others, and which is running advertisements to sell rainforest at $50 per acre), but Coca-Cola kept 50,000 acres of the best citrus land, according to an article by William Branigin for the Washington Post, printed in the Seattle Times, Nov. 23, 1989, p. F10. According to the Federal Register (July 13, 1989), the U.S. Department of the Treasury's Customs Service no longer requires that imported juice concentrate be labeled with all countries of origin.
Brazil: CETESB, a Sao Paulo environmental group, accused Spal, a Coca-Cola bottling plant, of polluting the Tiete River. Spal also wants to build another plant in the Serra do Japi environmental sanctuary (Earth Island Journal 7(1): 24, 1992).
See also Business in the Rainforests: Corporations, Deforestation and Sustainability, by Conrad B. MacKerron (Investor Responsibility Research Center, Washington DC, 1993).
Coke, Pepsi pay Himalayan fines. "Coca-Cola and Pepsi have been fined by India's Supreme Court after painting advertisements on the side of the Himalayan mountains. The two cola giants were among 12 companies who placed adverts on ecologically sensitive rock faces on a stretch of highway running through the Himalayan range. A three-judge bench fined the two cola companies 200,000 rupees ($4,000) each, while the other companies were ordered to pay 100,000 rupees each towards the cost of repairing the damage." (BBC news, July 17, 2002).
Coke, Pepsi pay Himalaya fines, BBCNews.com, Sept 17, 2002. " Coca-Cola and Pepsi have been fined by India's Supreme Court after painting advertisements on the side of the Himalayan mountains The two cola giants were among 12 companies who placed adverts on ecologically sensitive rock faces on a stretch of highway running through the Himalayan range A three-judge bench fined the two cola companies 200,000 rupees ($4,000) each, while the other companies were ordered to pay 100,000 rupees each towards the cost of repairing the damage A committee, set up to report on the damage, said in a report: "No approval for use of government property for commercial purposes has been obtained by the advertisers.".. The paintings were made on a 56km stretch of highway on the Manali-Rohtang pass in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh.... The passage has been the gateway for centuries to the trading routes leading to Lahaul, in northern India, Central Asia and China. The 10 other companies who were fined include Malhotra Book Depot, Fena Detergent, Birla White Cement, State Bank of India, Sleepwell Mattresses, Nestle India Ltd and Annapurna Hotels."
Indian rebels target US cola. "Left-wing rebels in southern India have attacked shops selling Coca Cola and Pepsi as a mark of protest against the US-led war on Iraq. A Pepsi warehouse has also been bombed in a similar attack, police say, all of which took place in the state of Andhra Pradesh... Police in Andhra Pradesh's Anantapur district say no one was hurt in the attack on the Pepsi warehouse. They said rebels used buckets full of gelatin and pipe bombs to blast the building. Before triggering the blast the rebels ordered the five staff members to leave the warehouse. The building was said to have suffered extensive damage and a huge stock of the cola was destroyed. The owner of the warehouse said the damage was estimated to be worth more than $20,000. Police said the rebels left a note at the scene of the blast which said the action was in protest against the American-led attack on Iraq. The note also demanded immediate withdrawal of US forces from the Gulf. Shops targeted In similar incidents, rebels attacked shops selling Coca Cola in Yerragundapalem and Hanuman Junction villages of Prakasham district. An unspecified stock of the soft drink was destroyed in the attacks. Police said the rebels handed over a letter to one of the shopkeepers before fleeing. The letter, which was addressed to the US President, George W Bush, strongly condemned the war. The letter said Mr Bush was responsible for the killing innocent people for the sake of oil. The PWG also criticised the Indian Government for not strongly condemning what it called imperialist policies of the US and other countries. It called for a ban on US and British companies from investing in India. The group also pasted posters in areas of its influence in the state asking people to oppose the war. In late 2001, the PWG targeted the multi-national soft drink companies in the state to condemn the US invasion of Afghanistan." (BBC News, March 24, 2003).
Pepsi facility attacked in India. Leftist rebels have attacked a Pepsi warehouse in southern India have attacked in protest against the US-led war on Iraq. Police say 10 armed rebels belonging to the outlawed People's War Group (PWG) entered the warehouse in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh state late on Sunday night. They ordered four employees to leave the premises before smashing cases containing hundreds of Pepsi bottles. This is the third such attack on American Cola companies in Andhra Pradesh since the Iraq war began... They ordered four employees to leave the premises before smashing cases containing hundreds of Pepsi bottles. This is the third such attack on American Cola companies in Andhra Pradesh since the Iraq war began. Last week, the rebels bombed a Pepsi warehouse in Andhra Pradesh and attacked shops selling Coca-cola and Pepsi in the state. Coke and Pepsi are seen as symbols of the US. No one was hurt in the attacks but the owner of the warehouse said the damage was estimated to be worth more than $20,000. Police said the rebels left a note at the scene of the blast which said the action was in protest against the American-led attack on Iraq. The note also demanded immediate withdrawal of US forces from the Gulf. In late 2001, the PWG targeted the multi-national soft drink companies in the state to condemn the US invasion of Afghanistan." (BBC News, March 31, 2003).
Coca Cola, AES Fined for Water Pollution in Panama. Associated Press, May 9, 2003. "Environmental authorities on Thursday levied hundreds of thousands of dollars in fines against Coca-Cola de Panama and AES after determining that accidents at factories the companies control outside the country's capital polluted the waters of the nearby Bay of Panama. The National Environmental Authority fined Coca Cola de Panama $300,000 for spilling 400 gallons of red dye it uses to produce fruit drinks into the Matasnillo River last week. The river flowed into the bay, turning more than half of it a red-pink colour. The company acknowledged responsibility for the spill, which terrified the local population and even prompted authorities in neighbouring Costa Rica to call their Panamanian counterparts and demand an explanation. The accident had no lasting effects on plant or animal life in the bay, however, said Bolivar Perez, an environmental engineer. Environmental authorities imposed a $250,000 fine on AES after a series of valves failed at the company's hydroelectric plant outside Panama City, dumping 1,000 gallons of diesel fuel into the nearby Bay of Panama late last month. Since the accident, local AES officials say they have successfully cleaned up 90 per cent of the affected areas and were continuing to investigate the accident's cause. In a report, environmental authorities concluded that the accident was caused by "negligence and a lack of operative controls." They also said the spill had a "major impact" on the bay's ecosystem."
Fizzy Math and Fishy Marketing: Lawsuit, Probes Prove Damaging to Coke, By Margaret Webb Pressler, Washington Post, June 20, 2003; Page E01.
Coca-Cola's 'toxic' India fertiliser. "The plant denies that the fertiliser is harmful to health. Waste product from a Coca-Cola plant in India which the company provides as fertiliser for local farmers contains toxic chemicals, a BBC study has found. Dangerous levels of the known carcinogen cadmium have been found in the sludge produced from the plant in the southern state of Kerala. The chemicals were traced in an investigation by BBC Radio 4's Face The Facts programme and prompted scientists to call for the practice to be halted immediately." (BBC News, July 25, 2003).
Coke Sued for Paramilitary Killings in Colombia, The DOminion, July 27, 2003. A US trade union is suing the Coca-Cola Corporation on behalf of Sinaltrainal, a Colombian union. The lawsuit accuses Coca-Cola of being "indirectly responsible" for the killing of the leader of a union representing workers at bottling plants reponsible for distributing Coca-Cola products in the region. The bottling plants are run by Panamerican Beverages, a Colombian company; Coca Cola representatives claim that Panamerican is a business partner, and that Coke does not own or operate the plants. A complaint filed by Sinaltrainal accused Panamerican Beverages of conducting a "campaign of terror, using paramilitaries to kill, torture and kidnap union leaders in Colombia." According to the report released by Sinaltrainal, over 1,500 labour leaders have been killed in the last ten years; 128 were killed last year."
Coke plant fined for contaminated drinks, Rediff.com, August 19, 2003. "The Consumer Disputes Redressal forum in Punjab's Moga district has directed a Coca Cola bottling plant to pay more than Rs 100,000 in fines and damages for releasing a contaminated batch of soft drinks in the market. A laboratory test found "foreign material injurious to health" in a 1.5 litre bottle of Coca Cola. The forum passed the order on Monday in relation to a complaint filed on November 22, 2002, by one Balwinder Singh, whose family became sick and had to be treated by a private doctor after consuming the impugned soft drink. Singh submitted one of the two impugned soft drink bottles, in sealed condition, to the forum, which was sent for laboratory test at Chandigarh. Based on the results of lab test that detected harmful material in the soft drink sample and after listening to the complainant and the respondents (including the retailer who sold the drinks), the forum directed the Coca Cola bottling plant at Baddi, Solan district, to deposit Rs 100,000 with the district Red Cross Society and Rs 10,000 as compensation to the complainant. The retailer was also directed to compensate Rs 2,000 to the complainant."
Coke pays off whistleblower, BBCNews.com, Oct 8, 2003. "Coca-Cola has agreed to pay $540,000 to a former employee who claimed the company inflated its profits and knowingly sold contaminated drinks. The company agreed the out of court settlement with former finance manager Matthew Whitley, who sued Coca-Cola for unfair dismissal. Mr Whitley lost his job one month after making his whistleblowing allegations... But Mr Whitley's allegations led the US Department of Justice to launch a criminal probe into the affair, which is still ongoing. The former finance manager claimed Coke had inflated its earnings and that managers knew that frozen drinks machines led to metal residue entering some of its products. Some of Mr Whitley's claims, including an accusation of a conspiracy to cheat shareholders, had already been thrown out of a US court in Georgia. But Coke did confess to one of the allegations, admitting that its employees had rigged a marketing test in order to increase sales at Burger King. Coke apologised to Burger King for faking the research and agreed to pay $21m (£12m) in compensation."
The World of Coke: A World of Trouble, by Jim Lovel, Atlanta Business Chronicle, April 2, 2004:
Alleged Coca-Cola Accounting Fraud Update, MUCorpLaw, May 3, 2004. "The WSJ reported that the government investigation into whether Coca-Cola Co. engaged in accounting fraud is intensifying, with a federal grand jury scheduled to hear testimony from company employees later this month and securities regulators issuing subpoenas to employees for information. The investigation's focus is on allegations that Coke shipped excessive amounts of beverage concentrate to bottlers and other distributors in Japan and North America in order to inflate its financial results in recent years. Former Coke finance officials have told investigators that the company engaged in this so-called channel stuffing to meet or exceed quarterly sales and profit goals, according to people close to the matter. The grand jury is scheduled to hear testimony around May 25. The government inquiries were initiated last summer after a former company auditor made allegations of fraud, among other charges, in wrongful-termination lawsuits in state and federal court in Atlanta. Coke settled the lawsuits in October. In addition to this investigation, Coke is also busy searching for a new chairman and chief executive to succeed Douglas Daft, who is retiring later this year. Also, the company announced three weeks ago that Deval Patrick, Coke's general counsel, is resigning at the end of the year."
Virtual Battle: How a Global Web of Activists Gives Coke Problems in India, By Steve Stecklow, Wall Street Journal, June 7, 2005; Page A1.Profiles Amit Srivastava, the NGO Global Resistance and its website India Resource Center.
Campaigns against Coca-Cola:
CokeWatch.org from the Campaign for Justice at Coca Cola.
KillerCoke.org campaigns to stop murders, kidnappings and torture of union leaders and organizers at Coca-Cola bottling plants in Colombia.
Campaign to Hold Coca-Cola Accountable from the India Resource Center. Includes an extensive collection of artciles on campaigns in other countries.
India Resource Center is the website of Global Resistance.
Chilean state-owned copper company, the world's largest copper producer.
COEUR D'ALENE MINES
Seven properties in Chile; exploration is concentrated at Fachinal near Chile Chico in southern Chile. Gold, silver, etc. Is involved in the Kensington mine (Alaskan panhandle) with Echo Bay Mines Ltd. (Engineering & Mining Journal, Feb. 1992, p. 7).
In March 1996, the U.S. sued ASARCO, Coeur d'Alene Mines, Hecla Mining, and Sunshine Mining, alleging that these corporations and several affiliates were responsbile for the clean-up of more than 70 million tons of lead, zinc, cadmium, and other toxic mining wastes spread over 1,500 square miles of the Coeur d'Alene River basin in northern Idaho in the past century (Transitions, Mar-Apr. 1996, includes reprints of press releases and news stories; Inland Empire Public Lands Council, PO Box 2210, Spokane WA 99210).
Heads consortium with $800 million contract for the first phase of a $6 billion, 300-mile railroad that is to cross the Venezuelan Andes, from Caracas to the mouth of the Orinoco River. Other companies involved include Astaldi Spa and Marubeni (Engineering News Record, Mar. 23, 1992, p. 60).
300 Park Ave, New York NY 10022
telephone 212-310-2000 fax 212-310-3284
Began in New York in 1806; had 2,000 products by 1906. Opened European branches in the 1930s and the Far East in the 1950s; foreign sales first surpassed American sales in 1961. Bought 70 companies in the 1970s. Now has 76 facilities in the U.S. and 123 in 41 other countries; two-thirds of its 1990 sales of $5.7 billion were overseas. Consumer products include Ajax, HandiWipes, Palmolive, Wash 'N Dri, Colgate, Sesame Street, Hill's pet foods, Fab (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992, p. 187).
The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on Colgate-Palmolive in 1991-92 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
COLORADO FUEL AND IRON
Rockefeller mining corporation infamous for the April 1914 Ludlow Massacre in which National Guard troops (many of whom had been employed by CF&I as detectives, mine guards, and spies) attacked a tent city set up after the miners had been evicted from company-owned housing. Some forty men were killed in gun fights which included the use of Hotchkiss guns. The tent city burned, suffocating two women and eleven children. John D. Rockefeller Jr. soon testified that he was willing to lose what he had invested in CF&I and kill all the employees in order to keep the mines free of labor unions. He later said "I never read the papers when there's apt to be any trouble. I learned that in the old days during the strike out west." (Peter Collier and David orotwitz, The Rockefellers: An American Dynasty, p. 116).
See also George P. West, Report on the Colorado Strike (U.S. Commission on Industrial Relations, 1915).
U.S. oil company involved in oil development in Burma. Myanmar Oil & Gas Enterprise (MOGE), the agency overseeing oil and gas development in Burma, is controlled by the military regime SLORC; since 1989, MOGE has signed multimillion dollar contracts with many foreign oil companies. A subsidiary of the Thai national oil company, PTT Exploration and Production, has proposed developing natural gas in Burma's Gulf of Mataban and shipping it to Thailand through an undersea pipeline. (See article by Dara O'Rourke, "Oil in Burma: Fueling Oppression," Multinational Monitor 13(10):7-11, Oct. 1992).
COLUMBIA FOREST PRODUCTS
2020 SW Fourth Ave # 520, Portland OR 97201
Columbia Plywood, Highway 97, Klamath Falls OR 97601
Largest supplier in the U.S. of veneer and hardwood plywood, including mahogany and teak (Directory of the Forest Products Industry, 1988).
A subsidiary of Swiss multinational ABB Asea Brown Boveri since 1989.
A group of landwoners in Georgia was awarded $45 million because of environmental damage done by Combustion Engineering's kryonite mining near Lincolntown (Multinational Monitor, July/Aug. 1993, p. 30).
Bolivian state-owned mining corporation; announced agreement with "various financial institutions for the funding of priority mining projects" (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991, p. 103).
818 W. Riverside Ave, Spokane, WA 99201
Negotiating to build a newsprint mill in Peramu, Pehang, Malaysia (FAO, 1988).
Shipped 20,000 metric tons of New Caledonia nickel to its Glenbrook smelter in Riddle, Oregon (the only nickel smelter in the U.S., which it purchased from Hanna in 1989) (Marine Digest & Transportation News, July 1991, p. 10). Has a 10-year contract for nickel in New Caledonia (Engineering & Mining Journal, Mar. 1992, p. 47).
Southern Chile - Quebrada Blanca heap leach and solvent extraction copper project has been given the go-ahead. Has a 14-year reserve (Engineering & Mining Journal, Mar. 1992, p. 45)
Cominco Resources International is drilling for copper and gold at Cerattepe, and at the Tac and Corak gold properties, in Turkey (Engineering & Mining Journal, Jan. 1992, p. 7).
In May 1992, Cominco's Kimberly, British Columbia mine was charged with violations of B.C.'s Waste Management and Fisheries Acts for a waste mine water spill into Mark Creek; the maximum fines under the charges would total $2.3 million (BC Ministry of Environment Information Bulletin No. 1992:ELP84, May 27 1992).
The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on Commonwealth Edison in 1993 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
COMPAGNIE GENERAL de GEOPHYSIQUE
Began oil exploration in Burma in 1989. Myanmar Oil & Gas Enterprise (MOGE), the agency overseeing oil and gas development in Burma, is controlled by the military regime SLORC; since 1989, MOGE has signed multimillion dollar contracts with many foreign oil companies. A subsidiary of the Thai national oil company, PTT Exploration and Production, has proposed developing natural gas in Burma's Gulf of Mataban and shipping it to Thailand through an undersea pipeline. (See article by Dara O'Rourke, "Oil in Burma: Fueling Oppression," Multinational Monitor 13(10):7-11, Oct. 1992).
COMPANHIA VALE DO RIO DOCE (CVRD)
Brazilian state-owned mining company.
The Igarape Bahia open pit gold mine in Carajas, Para, Brazil opened in 1991; it is expected to produce four tons of gold per year for at least 15 years (Mining Magazine, Dec. 1991, p. 435).
CVRD and its subsidiary Rio Doce Geologia e Mineracao SA (Docegeo), and the Brazilian government's Cia, are working with Geoscan on airborne multispectral scanning for the Santa Luz gold project in Bahia, Brazil, a 3000 square kilometer survey to take place in July 1992 (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p.179).
See also Business in the Rainforests: Corporations, Deforestation and Sustainability, by Conrad B. MacKerron (Investor Responsibility Research Center, Washington DC, 1993).
CONOCO (Continental Oil Company)
Box 2197, Houston, TX 77252
Park House, 116 Park Street, London W1Y 4NN, England
History Founded in 1875 as Continental Oil and Transportation Company in Ogden Utah. Controlled by Standard Oil took from 1885 until 1913 court breakup. Merged with JP Morgan-controlled Marland Oil in 1928. After World War II, expanded into Libya and Dhubai and diversified into coal, chemicals, plastics, fertilizers and minerals. Operations in Indonesia, the Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea in the 1970s, and then into Venezuela and Russia by the 1990s. Was subsidiary of Du Pont, 1981-1998 (which led to the 24 percent Bronfman (Seagram's) interest in Du Pont. See also record for Du Pont.). Current revenues $27 billion from operations in more than 40 countries.
Ecuador In the 1980s, Conoco leased 200,000 acres in Ecuador's Yasuni National Park and planned roads and pipelines (Rainforest Action Network Alert, Jan. 1, 1989, and World Rainforest Report, Jun/Aug. 1989), with World Bank funding (Rainforest Action Network Alert No. 42, Oct. 1989). See also The Ecologist 19(6):219-224 (1989). The Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund (SCLDF) took up the case (direct mailing from SCLDF, Mar. 1990). Ecuadoran environmentalists (including CORDAVI) and the Huaorani people opposed to the Ecuadorean operation (World Rainforest Report, Apr-May 1991; and Anita Parlow, Of Oil and Exploitation in Ecuador, Multinational Monitor, Jan/Feb 1991, p. 20-24). The Natural Resources Defense Council and Cultural Survival had controversial meetings with Conoco (Environmental Sell-Out, Multinational Monitor, May 1991, p. 4). In October 1991, Conoco announced its withdrawal from attempts to develop in the Yasuni, but Kerr McGee's Maxus Energy took over the same day, and planned 175 wells and 120 miles of road construction (Multinational Monitor, Dec. 1991, p. 4; and World Rainforest Report, Jan-Mar. 1992, p. 1).
Russia operations (Wall Street Journal, Apr. 6, 1993, p. A1, A5; Wall Street Journal, July 7, 1992, p. A11). Energy companies including Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, and Marathon have each donated an average of $100,000 to the Russian Petroleum Legislation project, which is being administered by the University of Houston Law Center. The model legislation is to be presented to the Russian Parliament for debate and adoption; if passed it could govern these companies' activities in Russia (Legal Times, January 1992; Multinational Monitor, Mar. 1992, p. 4).
Gulf Resources In May 2001, Conoco agreed to acquire Gulf Resources Canada for $6 billion. The acquisition would more than double Conoco's oil reserves in Asia through Gulf Canada's 72 per cent interest in Gulf Indonesia Resources. Gulf Canada, a former subsidiary of Gulf Oil, is one of Canada's top oil and gas producers. "Conoco said the acquisition would give it additional proven reserves equivalent to more than 1 billion barrels of oil, boosting its worldwide reserves almost 40 per cent to 3.7 billion barrels of oil. Total worldwide production would increase 32 per cent to the equivalent of 335 million barrels of oil in 2001." (Financial Times, May 29 2001).
Brooke, James. 1991. New Effort Would Test Possible Coexistence of Oil and Rain Forest. New York Times, Feb. 26, 1991.
Compana Amazonia por la Vida. 1991. Environmental Imperialism ion Ecuador? Attachment to letter dated May 25, 1991.
Kane, Joe. With Spears From All Sides. Harpers.
Kimerling, Judith. 1991. Amazon Crude.
MacKerron, Conrad B. 1993. Business in the Rainforests: Corporations, Deforestation and Sustainability. Washington D.C.: Investor Responsibility Research Center, 1993.
Rainforest Action Network. 1991. Huaorani to Du Pont: Get Out. World Rainforest Report, Apr-May 1991.
CONROY PETROLEUM AND NATURAL RESOURCES PLC
Completing final feasibility studies for a mine at its Galmoy zinc-lead property in County Kilkenny, Ireland (Mineral Industry International, Jan. 1990, p. 2).
4 Irving Place, New York NY 10003
Founded in 1823.
The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on Consolidated Edison ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
CONSOLIDATED FIVE STAR RESOURCES
20 Bertrand Ave, Scarborough, Ontario T5J 3P4 Canada
F&R Oil and Gas is a subsidiary of Consolidated Five Star (Whole World Oil Directory 1991, p. 140).
Oil operations in Australia (Whole World Oil Directory 1991, p. 140).
CONSOLIDATION COAL GROUP
1800 Washington Rd, Pittsburgh PA 15241
Owned by Du Pont and Rheinbraum.
See Forbes (July 5, 1993, p. 43) and WOTE.
CONSOLIDATED GOLDFIELDS OF SOUTH AFRICA
Founded in the 19th century by colonialist Cecil Rhodes; has mines and quarries in the UK, Australia, the U.S., and South Africa. See Bill Jamieson's Goldstrike: the Oppenheimer empire in Crisis (Hutchison Books, 1990). Attempted acquisition by Anglo American (Minorco) in the early 1980s was stopped by a U.S. court.
See WOTE and Dan Morgan's Merchants of Grain.
COORS (ADOLPH COORS CO.)
Golden CO 80401
telephone 800-642-6116 or 800-525-3786
Coors Ceramics, 600 Ninth St, Golden CO 80401
Coors Ceramics, 2449 River Rd, Grand Junction CO 81505
Coors Glass, 10619 West 50th Ave, Wheat Ridge CO 80033
Coors Foundation, 350 C Clayton St, Denver CO 80206
Coors Ceramics subsidiary makes dewatering devices for paper-making machines in Brazil (Earth First! Journal, June 21, 1989, p. 8).
The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on Coors in 1991-92 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
J.P. Morgan, 60 Wall Street, New York NY 10260
A $1 billion investment partnership in financial institutions managed by J.P.Morgan (see the advertisement for investors in The Economist, Feb. 27, 1993). The name of the partnership recalls the nineteenth century, when the robber baron Pierpont Morgan was called a pirate, and named his yacht the "Corsair."
CORTEZ GOLD see Placer Dome
COSTRACO Sdn Bhd
One of the top ten exporters of sawtimber from Malaysia in 1991 (Asian Timber, April 1992, p.8).
13000 NE 61st Place, Kirkland WA
Pres. Harry McGuane
Major wholesale importer of veneers and plywood of mahogany, rosewood, and teak (Directory of the Forest Products Industry).
CRA LTD see RTZ (Rio Tinto Zinc)
CRANDON MINING COMPANY
A proposed underground zinc and copper mining joint venture between Exxon and Rio Algom, located at the Headwaters of the Wolf River in northern Wisconsin, adjacent to the Chippewa Mole Lake Indian Reservation. First proposed in the late 1970s, the mining pollution would affect wild rice harvesting, a major source of income for the Mole Lake Chippewas and the Menominees, who have a reservation downstream (Clementine: the Journal of Responsible Mineral Development, Winter 1994, p. 16).
Exxon is represented by the law firm Foley & Lardner, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (Manski, Ben. Wisconsin Resistance to Exxon Mining. Earth First! 19(1): 8, Nov. 1, 1995).
"State Board Refuses To Toughen Mining Moratorium Law. The Wisconsin Natural Resources Board yesterday rejected a request from environmentalists and others to strengthen the state's "mining moratorium" law. Environmental groups, the Menominee Indian tribe and state lawmakers petitioned the NRB to adopt rules for implementing a 1998 law that would have made it more difficult for Nicolet Minerals Co. to obtain permits for a proposed mine near Crandon by 2005. The petitioners wanted the board to require applicants to show that a single mine in an area similar to northern Wisconsin had operated and closed without damaging the environment (Tom Vanden Brook, Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, Dec. 8). But the board voted 6-0 against adopting the rules, saying the the law was already "clear" on how it should be carried out. The decision disappointed environmentalists who said clarification was needed to guide regulators in enforcing the law. Dave Blouin, state mining chair for the Sierra Club: "We say it's clear as mud." And Rep. Spencer Black (D) said the state Department of Natural Resources "is converting the mining moratorium law into a non-moratorium law in order to pave the way for the [Crandon mine]." The DNR is reviewing Nicolet's proposal to remove 55 million tons of zinc and copper ore from the Crandon site and expects to release an environmental impact statement next August." (Greenwire, Dec. 9, 1999, citing Jenny Price, AP, St. Paul Pioneer Press and others, Dec. 9, 1999).
CRESTBROOK INDUSTRIES see Mitsubishi
Croft began oil exploration in Burma in 1989, but later pulled out (Dara O'Rourke, "Oil in Burma: Fueling Oppression," Multinational Monitor, Oct. 1992; Burma Issues, Nov. 1993, p. 6).
CROWN BUTTE RESOURCES
Noranda Minerals' U.S. subsidiary.
Proposed gold mine in critical grizzly bear habitat in the Beartooth Mountains, near Cooke City, Montana, adjacent to the northeast corner of Yellowstone National Park and the Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness Area, and in the headwaters of three rivers (Feb. 1994 mailing from the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, PO Box 1874, Bozeman MT 59771). The proposal calls for tailings to be impounded in an earthquake-prone area upstream from the Park; Noranda claims it should not be held responsible since it would not be the "actual" owner and operator (May 1994, Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund, 2044 Fillmore Street, San Francisco CA 94115, 415-567-6100).
CROWN PACIFIC click here for a detailed profile
One James Center, 901 E. Cary St, Richmond VA 23219
CSX Corporation was created in 1980 by the merger of the Chessie System (the 1973 holding company for the Chesapeake & Ohio, Baltimore & Ohio, and Western Maryland railroads) and the Seaboard Coast Line (the combined Seaboard Air and Atlantic Coast Lines). In the mid-1980s, CSX acquired Texas Gas Resources (sold in 1989), American Commercial Lines (Texas Gas river barge subsidiary), and Sea-Land (ocean container shipping). In the late 1980s, CSX sold most of its coal, oil and gas, and resort properties, as well as its Lightnet fiber optics company. CSX had revenues of $8.6 billion in 1991.
American Commercial Lines: largest inland barge line in the U.S.
CSX Realty and CSX Real Properties: real estate development.
CSX Transportation: 19,000 mile rail system linking 20 states in the South, East, Midwest U.S. and Ontario, Canada.
Grand Teton Lodge: resort at Moran WY.
Greenbriar: 6,500-acre resort for business executives in White Sulpher Springs, West Virginia.
Sea-Land Service: largest U.S.-flag ocean container shipping, operating in 70 countries in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia.
In 1991, CSX joined joint ventures in 1991 to enter markets in Brazil, Venezuela, and the former USSR. Since 1996, CSX's ACBL has been developing the $190 million Mercosul Hidrovia project for operating barges on the 1,270 km. stretch between the Brazilian cities of Porto Velho and Itacoatiara on the Madeira and Amazon rivers. ACBL is also interested in the Araguaia river and the Paran-Tiet link. ACBL now has a fleet of 131 barges and 7 tugboats. The principal cargos shipped between Corumb and Buenos Aires are: soy and soy prducts, iron ore, sunflower, wheat, fertilizers, and fuels. The company operates under the Argentine flag 24 hours per day, because it has a satellite navigation system which permits it to reduce transport costs by up to 25%. It has already invested $65 million. By the year 2001, ACBL is planning for more barges and tugboats, terminals, a floating dike and a training center in Corumb. Agricultural production is increasing in Bolivia (20%), in Mato Grosso, in Paraguay (due to increased productivity) and in Argentina (through expansion of the agricultural frontier in the provinces of Santa Fe, Chaco, and Formosa) (from Almeida, Hamilton, Hidrovias attract investments, Gazeta Mercantil, Brazil, April 28, 1997).
Derailment: July 1986 derailment of phosporous in Miamisburg Ohio, igniting on contact, poisonous cloud forced evacuation of 40,000 residents; CSX faced damage claims of $1 billion in the lawsuits that followed (Moskowitz, Everybody's Business, 1990).
Based on CSX's safety and environmental record, in June 1995, the Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund petitioned the Attorney General in West Virginia to begin corporate charter revocation proceedings against CSX (Rachel's Environment and Health Weekly #230 and #455; and New York Times, Nov. 21, 1991, p. A20). Contact Thomas Linzey, CELDF, 2244 Lindsay Lot Rd, Shippensburg PA 17257, 717-545-0124.
CUBAN ELECTRIC CO. see Boise Cascade
CVRD see Companhia Vale do Rio Doce
CYPRUS AMAX MINERALS acquired by Phelps Dodge
Cyprus Minerals Co, Box 3299, Englewood CO 80155
Cyprus Minerals was spun off from Amoco in July 1985. Cyprus made more than 20 acquisitions in copper, coal, molybdenum, lithium, talc, and silver; was the leading U.S. producer of molybdenum, and second-largest U.S. producer of copper. Cyprus acquired the Sierrita/Twin Buttes project in central Arizona from Duval Corporation in 1986-1988; Cyprus has other operations in Tonopah, Thompson Creek, and Bagdad (Mining Magazine, July 1991, p. 5). In November 1993, Cyprus merged with AMAX to form Cyprus Amax Minerals.
In December 1993, Vice-President Al Gore announced the Clinton Administration's backing for Cyprus Amax's gold mining project near Magadan, Siberia; the U.S. OPIC will provide insurance and loans. The gold mining joint venture with Russian partners was announced in July; it is projected to produce 340,000 ounces of gold and $800 million in revenue (Denver Post, Dec. 17, 1993, p. C12).
Cyprus Climax Metals' Cerroverde copper mine in Peru is insured by the World Bank affiliate Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) (Chatterjee, Pratap. Digging Everyone's Grave: World Bank's Mining Mayhem. Earth First! 16(1): 17, Nov. 1, 1995).
Cyprus-Amax Kubaka mining venture in Magadan, Russia. Contact Pacific Environment and Resources Center http://www.pacificenvironment.org