Corporate profiles compiled by George Draffan
Public Information Network, PO Box 95316, Seattle WA 98145-2316 USA
FAIR USE NOTICE: This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political and economic issues.
ABB (Asea Brown Boveri)
900 Long Ridge Rd., Stamford CT 06904
ABB was created in 1988 by the merger of ASEA of Sweden and BBC Brown Boveri of Switzerland; each retains its own companies (like ASEA's control of Electrolux) but shares equal ownership in the new conglomerate. ABB is now the world's largest electrical engineering corporation, with 1300 companies in 140 countries. Operations include power plants and transmission, electrical equipment, motors, robotics, satllite communications, steel-making equipment, and waste handling systems (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1993, p. 116-117).
ABB Mannhein, a German subsidiary, was awarded a billion dollar contract to build a hydroelectric plant on the Karun River in Iran (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1993, p. 116-117).
See also Combustion Engineering, a subsidiary of ABB since 1989.
ABER RESOURCES LTD see Diavik
Chromite mining in Philippines (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p. 136).
ADM see Archer Daniels Midland
ADOBE RESOURCES see Anglo American (Minorco)
Box 3627, Wenatchee, WA 98801
Imports and exports Central American wood, especially from Guatemala. Also has offices in Honolulu, Hawaii and Long Beach, California (Asian Timber, 1988).
1001 N. 19th Street, Arlington VA 22209
AES Barbers Point is the first major coal-fired power plant in Hawaii, and the single largest supplier of power to Hawaii Electric Company (equivalent to 18 percent of the electric consumption of the island of Oahu). AES has received environmental award for selling 100 tons of coal ash per day for use as a construction aggregate and as a soil amendment on sugar cane fields (Hawaii Investor, Apr. 1993, p. 14).
AFRICAN TIMBER AND PLYWOOD
Unilever owns 40 percent of UAC of Nigeria Ltd., which is part of African Timber and Plywood (Business in the Rain Forests, p. 90-91).
In 1958, Shell discovered petroleum near the Niger River delta in Nigeria; since then, Shell has extracted $30 billion worth of oil and natural gas. Shell, Mobil, Chevron, Texaco, and other oil companies generate 80 percent of Nigeria's annual revenue. Since 1993, the local Ogoni people have been suppressed; 20 Ogoni towns have been destroyed, 1,800 people killed, and 50,000 left homeless. The Nigerian government's hanged Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other Ogoni peoples activists on November 10, 1995. Shell has been condemned for its role; over 300 people protested at Shell's New York headquarters on November 13, 1995. A few days after the execution, Shell announced a new $4 billion Nigerian natural gas plan; ELF, and Agit are also involved. (Interview with Human Rights Watch on National Public Radio on Nov. 16; RAN Action Alert, No. 115, Dec. 1995).
AGUSAN WOOD INDUSTRIES
Mitsubishi has a large investment in Agusan, producing plywood in the Philippines (Rainforest Action Network Action Alert, No. 79, December 1992). See Mitsubishi.
AKOSUMBOA DAM see Valco
Has 350 facilities in 50 countries selling 10,000 chemical, fiber, automobile and aerospace coatings, and health care (birth control and fertility drugs, anesthetics, poultry vaccines) products worth about $10 billion per year; half the facilities are in the U.S. and Canada. New facilities include Singapore wood coating manufacturing; the company "also sees potential in Thailand, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, Philippines, and Taiwan" (Asian Timber, Feb. 1992, p. 31-32).
Former company names include Akzo Coatings and Reliance Universal; brand names include Reliance, Levis paint, and Hanna.
ALASKA PULP COMPANY
Mitsubishi was part-owner of the Alaska Pulp Corporation, which (with Louisiana Pacific's Ketchikan Pulp Company) had 50-year, subsidized, monopoly contracts on the Tongass National Forest (Ran Action Alert, No. 94, Mar. 1994). The mill was shut down in 1994. For background on the Tongass monopoly, see Kathie Durbin's book Tongass: Pulp Politics and the Fight for Alaska's Rain Forest. (Oregon State University, 1999).
ALBERT ABELA (GULF) INC.
Sa'dah and Tabaq/Awtaq prospecting in Yemen with Cluff Resources. The joint venture is named Cluff Abela Minerals (Yemen) Ltd., or CAM (Mining Magazine, Sept. 1991, p.176).
ALBERTA & SOUTHERN GAS CO.
425 First St. SW, Calgary, Alberta T2P 3L8, Canada
A subsidiary of Pacific Gas & Electric. Exports natural gas.
ALBERTA-PACIFIC FOREST INDUSTRIES (ALPAC)
Alpac is a heavily-subsidized pulp mill on the Athabasca River. Its biggest shareholder is Crestbrook, owned 32 percent by Mitsubishi, 32 percent by Honshu Paper (Honshu is part of the Oji and Daiichi Kangyo groups).
Gismondi, Michael and Mary Richardson. Discourse nd Power in Environmental Poliics, pp. 232-252 in Is Capitalism Sustainable?, ed. by Martin O'Connor. New York: Guilford Press, 1994.
Probe Post 12(1), Spring 1989, pp. 16-19.
Richardson, Mary et al. Winning Back the Words: Confronting Experts in an Environmental Public Hearing.
Taiga-News: Newsletter on Boreal Forests, No. 5, March 1992, p. 5.
1188 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 3G2
Spun off from Alcoa by U.S. court order in 1945 (see Alcoa).
Involved in Russia.
Alcan was involved in a feasibility study to reopen the Lydford bauxite mine in Jamaica; the Ukraine is also involved in the plan, with Jamaica Bauxite Mining (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p.179).
Part owner (with Reynolds Metals and others) of the Mineracao Rio do Norte project in the Trombetas River basin in Brazil. Like Alcoa and Shell-Billiton's Amazon Bauxite Mine, it is near the Trombetas Biological Reserve, and threatens the River itself.
In the 1950s, British Columbia gave Alcan the rights to the Nechako River, a tributary of the Fraser River, for hydroelectricity to build the world's largest aluminum smelter. The Cheslatta peoples were relocated from the area flooded by the dam's 300-mile reservior. In 1988, Alcan announced it would divert even more water in a second phase of the project. The Canadian government exempted the project from environmental assessment requirements. In 1995, after years of challenges by indigenous peoples, environmentalists, and government scientists, the Kemano Completion Project was cancelled by British Columbia. Alcan, which takes 30 to 70 percent of the Nechako River's flow, owed $888 million in deferred taxes (Ryan, John C., Hazardous Handouts: Taxpayer Subsidies to Environmental Degradation, Seattle: Northwest Environment Watch, p. 42-44, 48-49). Ryan cites:
Baldrey, Keith. Rough Water Looms for Kemano Project. Vancouver Sun, Jan. 12, 1995.
Beck, Dirk, The Kemano Deal: Scientists, Salmon Sacrificed. The Watershed (Carrier-Sekani Tribal Council, Burns Lake, BC), Nov. 1993.
Howard, Ross. B.C. Liable for Dam Compensation, Ottawa Says. Globe and Mail, Jan. 25, 1995.
Hume, Stephen. Possible Breach of Duty Identified in Kemano Brief. Vancouver Sun, Jan. 20, 1995.
MacKerron, Conrad B. Business in the Rainforests: Corporations, Deforestation and Sustainability. Washington DC: Investor Responsibility Research Center, 1993.
Ridgeway, James. Who Owns the Earth.
El Florida, Mexico
In the 1980s, Alco Pacific extracted lead from used car batteries. Dumped 80,000 tons of lead sulfate and other toxic and explosive chemicals; effects include a continuous undergound fire and respiratory and other diseases; the operation has been abandoned (The Workbook, Winter 1995-1996, p. 179, citing On The Line: Life on the U.S.-Mexico Border, by Augusta Dwyer, Latin American Bureau Research and Action, London, 1994).
ALCOA (ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA)
425 Sixth Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15219
Long-time aluminum monopoly controlled by the Mellon family, found illegal by U.S. courts in 1945; the courts ordered Alcoa to sell many of its operations, including in Canada (see Alcan), and to license other producers under its aluminum ingot patents (Mueller, William F. A Primer on Monopoly and Competition. Random House, 1970, p. 144). Alcoa was the first industrial user of Niagara River electricity. Alcoa has 159 manufacturing and sales facilities in 22 countries; its subsidiaries include Alcoa Aluminio (Brazil) and Alco Brazil Holdings Co., Alcoa of Australia Ltd., Coastal Chemicals, Alcoa Fujikura, Alcoa Nederland, Suriname Aluminum Co., and Stolle Corporation (building materials); it has joint ventures with Kobe Steel of Japan (KSL Alcoa) and Sam Sun Industrial of Korea (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 100).
See also Alcan.
Alcoa is involved in bauxite mining in Suriname, Australia, Brazil, Jamaica, and Republic of Guinea; fabricating plants in Australia and Brazil; and alumina and/or chemical production facilities in Brazil, Jamaica, and Suriname.
Alcoa has been operating in Suriname since the early 20th century; it owns Suriname Aluminum Co. (SURALCO), which has a smelter at Paranam, Suriname. Power is supplied by the Afobaka dam, which was built by Suralco, and closed in 1964, creating a 650 square mile reservior. The International Society for the Protection of Animals held its "Operation Gwamba" to rescue animals threatened by the flooding (Operation Gwamba: the Story of Rescuing 10,000 Animals from Certain death in a South American Rain Forest, by the ISPA, E.P. Dutton, New York, 1967; and the Seattle Times, June 2, 1989, p.A4).
Aluminum bauxite projects (with Billiton and Shell near the Trombetas River in Para, and on Sao Luis Island) in Brazil are part of the Grand Carajas project (The Ecologist 19(6): 219-224 (1989). Communities in the Trombetas basin succeeded in delaying licensing of that mine, which would involve the construction of ten dams on the river, until Alcoa demarcates land titled to the blacks. The head of Brazilian environmental agency IBAMA was fired after her refusal to allow Alcoa to clearcut part of the Saraca-Taquera National Forest, where the mine is to be located (World Rivers Review, Nov/Dec 1991, p.4; and the International Rivers Network's Special Briefing, Jan. 1992).
Alcoa will spend more than $50 million over eight years to clean up its Massena smelter in New York; work includes disposal of treated soil and sludge, landfill and lagoon closure, and the restoration of streams and wetlands (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991, p.103).
Alcoa of Australia Ltd.'s chairman, Arvi Parbo, is also chairman of Western Mining Corp. Holdings Ltd. (Associated Press, "Miners See Profits in Foreign Markets," Dec. 6, 1992).
"Alcoa smelter plan gets Iceland environmental OK Alcoa Inc., the world's largest aluminum producer, last week said Iceland's environmental agency issued an operating permit for the company's proposed 322,000 tonnes per year Fjardaal primary aluminum smelter in eastern Iceland. The permit establishes environmental operating conditions and emission limits for the plant. While Alcoa said the new plant will have significantly less environmental impact than an earlier smelter designed for the location, the project has aroused strong opposition from local environmentalists, including pop singer Bjork. Alcoa said it plans to invest $1.1 billion in the smelter, with construction beginning in 2005 and production in 2007. The project has already received approval from Iceland's parliament, and is about to sign a 40-year power contract with Landsvirkjun, Iceland's national power producer. Alcoa did not disclose the terms of the power deal, but it has shuttered or curtailed operations elsewhere when production energy and labor costs made them uncompetitive. For example, Alcoa said last month it stopped work on an idled third production line at its Intalco aluminum smelter in Ferndale, Washington, after a major area power supplier said it might raise rated by as much as 15 percent. In that announcement, Alcoa said its U.S.-based primary smelting was not cost competitive and that it was taking steps to lower costs to make it competitive. Environmentalists are critical of Landsvirkjun's plans to divert two major glacial rivers into a valley in the Icelandic highlands, creating a large reservoir to power Alcoa's smelter. But supporters say the plant will fuel the small nation's economy and create jobs. Alcoa said the plant would offer some 450 jobs and generate 300 more in service-related industries, as well as additional construction jobs. Last week, Alcoa said the revised smelter design reduced production at the plant by about 25 percent, and incorporated state-of-the-art technology so the plant will consume less electricity, fuel and water than the original proposal. Additionally, Alcoa said it will not dispose of spent pot lining, a by-product of the aluminum production process, on the site in Iceland, nor will it manufacture carbon anodes at the Icelandic plant, eliminating a source of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and hydrocarbon emissions. (Reuters, March 17, 2003).
"NGOs call on banks not to fund large dam and smelter project in Iceland Icelandic highlands threatened by the dam and aluminum smelter. An international coalition of 112 environmental organizations today called on private banks and international financial institutions not to provide any funds for the large Kárahnjúkar dam and aluminum smelter project in Iceland. Iceland's National Power Company and the Alcoa Corporation are expected to sign the project's power contract on 15 March. If built, the Kárahnjúkar project will consist of nine dams, three reservoirs, a series of tunnels and river diversions, and a 690 megawatt power plant. It is only the first in a series of large new dam projects in Iceland's highlands that are supposed to power new aluminum smelters. "Kárahnjúkar will destroy unique environmental treasures on Iceland's Eastern Highlands - the second largest remaining wilderness area in Western Europe," says Arni Finnsson of the Iceland Nature Conservation Association (INCA). Alcoa is closing smelters in other parts of the world and is moving to Iceland as part of a cost-saving strategy. The company is interested in tapping Iceland's cheap electricity, and will not have to pay for the CO2 emissions of its new smelter because Iceland has an exception under the Kyoto protocol. "It is unacceptable to sacrifice a large, pristine wilderness area for producing cheaper aluminum," says Peter Bosshard of International Rivers Network (IRN). "In its 2001 Vision Statement, Alcoa aspires to become 'the best company in the world'. Developing the Kárahnjúkar project would clearly be at odds with such a claim." Iceland's National Power Company intends to raise funds for the Kárahnjúkar project from the European Investment Bank (EIB), the Nordic Investment Bank (NIB) and private banks. INCA, IRN, the CEE Bankwatch Network, Friends of the Earth International and WWF's International Arctic Programme have today called on the EIB, the NIB and all banks that have funded the National Power Company in the past not to provide any funds for the Kárahnjúkar project. The NGO appeal was endorsed by 112 organizations from 46 countries. "Financial institutions such as the EIB that claim to be environmentally sensitive should not give a penny to this disastrous project," says Magda Stoczkiewicz of the CEE Bankwatch Network, who monitors the European Investment Bank with Friends of the Earth/International. "NGOs will continue to follow the Kárahnjúkar project, and will hold any financial institution that puts money into it accountable for irreparable environmental damage." Samantha Smith of WWF's International Arctic Programme said: "We hope that the Karahnjukar proposal is the last time we see such an environmentally irresponsible power development plan see the light of day. What Iceland needs are plans to protect its environment not destroy it." Background on the Kárahnjúkar project: If built, the Kárahnjúkar project will have massive environmental impacts on Iceland's fragile Eastern Highlands wilderness area. It will irreparably damage a rare oasis of highland vegetation, and will destroy or severely impact sensitive habitats for the pinkfooted goose and other rare birds, salmonids, seals, and reindeer. The project's Environmental Impact Assessment was rejected by Iceland's National Planning Agency, a decision that was later overruled by the Minister for Environment. The economic benefits of the Kárahnjúkar project for Iceland are questionable. The National Power Company's assumptions regarding cost and time overruns and aluminum price trends are optimistic. A thorough economic evaluation commissioned by INCA estimates that (under its slightly different previous parameters) Kárahnjúkar will entail annual losses for Iceland of US$36 million. The Kárahnjúkar project is a highly politicized undertaking, and a divisive issue within Iceland. Three Icelandic citizens and INCA sued the Minister for Environment for overturning the negative decision on the project's Environmental Impact Assessment. Iceland's Courts of Law will consider this case in early April. In addition, INCA and an Icelandic citizen filed complaints with the EFTA Surveillance Authority regarding an infringement of the European Economic Area Agreement, asserting that the Icelandic Government unduly subsidizes electricity and aluminum production through a variety of measures. The Kárahnjúkar dam and a 40km headrace tunnel from the reservoir to the powerhouse will be built by Impregilo of Italy. Six international consortia recently pre-qualified to submit bids for the electro-mechanical contracts of the project. (Source: World Wildlife Fund, March 13, 2003).
For further information:
Arni Finnsson INCA Tel: +354 897 2437 E-mail: email@example.com
Peter Bosshard IRN Tel: +41 1 491 7021 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Magda Stoczkiewicz CEE Bankwatch/FoE International Tel:+31 20 622 1369 E-mail: email@example.com
Samantha Smith WWF International Arctic Programme Tel: + 47 22 03 65 00 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Kárahnjúkar finance strategy and list of banks that have funded the National Power Company in the past:
Iceland's National Power Company (Landsvirkjun) plans to raise the funds for the Kárahnjúkar project from two sources: long term funding from the European and Nordic Investment Banks (EIB, NIB) "in the early stages of the project", and medium and long-term funding from private banks, e.g. through issuing notes under a so-called Euro Medium Term Note programme (EMTN) and through a revolving loan facility. In the recent past, Landsvirkjun has not taken up any loans, but has relied on bonds and similar instruments. Since 1998, the utility has issued eight bonds for a total amount of $243 million. It has also issued 23 notes for a total amount of $672 million under a large $1 billion EMTN programme which it arranged in May 1998.
Since 1998, the following banks have raised capital for Iceland's National Power Company through the EMTN programme and bond issues:
ABN AMRO (Holland), a dealer of the 1998 EMTN programme, US$360 million
Banque AIG (USA), US$140 million
Commerzbank (Germany), US$70 million
Merrill Lynch (USA), arranger of the 1998 EMTN programme, US$69 million
DePfa Bank (Ireland), $50 million
JP Morgan, Chase Manhattan (USA), a dealer of the 1998 EMTN programme, US$40 million
IBJ International (Japan), US$30 million
Salomon Brothers, Salomon Smith Barney (USA), US$30 million
Credit Suisse First Boston (Switzerland), US$25 million
UBS Warburg (Switzerland), a dealer of the 1998 EMTN programme, US$20 million
Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken (Sweden), US$20 million
(Source: International Rivers Network http://www.irn.org)
ALL BEST CORPORATION
Furniture manufacturer operating in Kuantan, Malaysia since 1991; the furniture is finished in Taiwan and marketed worldwide, some of it under its Datong brandname; its Malaysian operations are expected to expand (Asian Timber, Mar. 1992, p. 10).
Vulcan is Allen's holding company for his Microsoft interest, computer, technology, multimedia, communications products and services, biotechnology ventures, and real estate.
Paul Allen's holdings include:
Allen's management cited in Charter suit. By David Voreacos, Bloomberg News, Seattle Times, June 27, 2003. "Charter Communications Chairman Paul Allen encouraged a culture in which executives inflated revenue, cash flow and subscriber numbers at the third-largest U.S. cable operator to boost share prices, investors claim. Shareholders, led by StoneRidge Investment Partners, made their accusations about Allen's management earlier this month in an amended version of a fraud suit they filed in St. Louis, where Charter is based. Allen, the billionaire co-founder of Microsoft, is the largest shareholder of Charter. Charter's practices are under review by a U.S. grand jury and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The investigations focus on how the company reported customer numbers, determined whether expenses were capitalized or treated as operating costs and accounted for payments from programmers and suppliers... Charter spokesman David Andersen said the company will vigorously defend the suit but declined to comment on specific accusations. Charter, with almost $19 billion in debt, is trying to sell assets and improve operations after restating revenue and profits for the past three years..."
Hard times hit Paul Allen. Associated Press, July 28, 2003. "Times are tough, even for billionaire Paul Allen. The Microsoft co-founder's fortune has been nearly halved - from $40 billion to $21 billion - by the decline of the stock market and other setbacks, according to a Forbes Magazine estimate in 2002...
One-time foe sells Paul Allen key land near South Lake Union. By J. Martin McOmber and Bob Young, Seattle Times , Oct 2, 3003. "Paul Allen's newest acquisition in the South Lake Union neighborhood may be his shrewdest yet. The $21.25 million purchase yesterday of 3 acres at the intersection of Mercer Street and Westlake Avenue North secured some of the most visible land for his burgeoning biotech hub and bought out one of the few property owners who might have stood in the way of efforts to redevelop the neighborhood. Mike Foley has been one of South Lake Union's key players since leading the opposition to the Seattle Commons park a decade ago. But the sharp-tongued critic who helped stop that controversial project said Allen's company, Vulcan, made an offer he couldn't refuse. "When you look at the price per square foot, the decision to sell speaks for itself," he said. Vulcan paid about $187 a square foot for the land, among the highest prices the company has paid in the South Lake Union neighborhood. The deal gives Vulcan control of all but a handful of properties along Mercer Street and brings to 53 acres the amount of land it owns in the South Lake Union neighborhood. "We consider this purchase to be a very strategic addition to our South Lake Union real-estate portfolio," said Ada Healey, Vulcan's vice president of real estate..."
Biotech Land Rush. A glut of development is planned in Seattle, Bothell, and Renton-enough to accommodate tens of thousands of life-science researchers and other 'knowledge' workers. Are there enough tenants to go around? By George Howland Jr. Seattle Weekly, Nov 19, 2003. For history, see also South Lake Union: The evolution of a dream, By Walt Crowley, Special to The Seattle Times, June 8, 2003, and Paul Allen's major makeover offers high risks, huge payoffs, By J. Martin McOmber and Bob Young, Seattle Times, April 27, 2003.
Paper Chasten: The biggest open-records penalty in state history isn't big enough, a citizen tells the state Supreme Court. By Rick Anderson. Seattle Weekly, Feb 25, 2004. "Businessman and part-time documents diver Armen Yousoufian notched a solid public-records victory against the government in 2001, and the government now agrees. When a judge awarded Yousoufian just over $100,000 for King County's "egregious" failure to release public documents on its football stadium deal with billionaire Paul Allen..."
When It Rains, There Are Pores: The state orders billionaire Paul Allen to fix the many leaks in Seahawks Stadium - or else. By Rick Anderson. Seattle Weekly, March 10th, 2004. Paul Allen's Oregon Arena Corp is seeking Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection -- and wants to form another company to buy it for $50 million, even though it's worth twice that, and even though Allen still owes bondholders more than $130 million.
Creditors raising a fuss about Rose Garden arena payout. KATU.com, March 23, 2004. Investors who helped finance the construction of the Rose Garden arena criticized a plan to allow the bankrupt arena pay about $516,000 to the City of Portland and two companies owned by billionaire Paul Allen ahead of others owed money. An attorney for the creditors questioned whether the money should instead help pay for ongoing operating expenses for the Rose Garden, owned by Allen's Oregon Arena Corp. Such a move would limit how much of the cash claimed by bondholders would be used for operations. Oregon Arena filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection from creditors Feb. 27, citing overwhelming debt payments. The move came at a bankruptcy court hearing Monday. The proposed payments cover about $188,000 in user fees to the city, $320,000 in ticket sales to Allen's Portland Trail Blazers basketball team, and $8,000 in catering to Allen's Cutting Edge Concepts, which runs the arena's concessions. The issue is whether the $516,000, collected by Oregon Arena before its bankruptcy filing, is protected by "trust fund" agreements in the entities' contracts. Oregon Arena and the city say the payments are protected. The arena is seeking only to pass on the money to its rightful owners, said Steve Patterson, president of Oregon Arena and the Trail Blazers. "It's not OAC's money; it's the Trail Blazers' money," said Patterson, referring to ticket money collected on behalf of the Blazers. "It's the way this business works." Attorney Richard Josephson, who represents the bondholders, contends that his clients have not seen sufficient proof that the funds are contractually subject to trust provisions. In that case, the money should be used for the arena's ongoing operating expenses, he said. The city and Allen's two companies could collect on their debts after a restructuring plan is approved, a process that could take months. The bondholders, who are owed more than $130 million, have no claim on the $516,000, Josephson said. But that cash could go toward operating expenses for the arena, he said, which would limit how much other money is used..."
The Billion-Dollar Neighborhood, by George Howland, Seattle Weekly, June 23 - 29, 2004. "The mayor wants the public to pay for more than just infrastructure improvements in South Lake Union, and a ‘public-interest’ coalition is giving him cover. eattle City Council member Peter Steinbrueck says Mayor Greg Nickels now wants close to $1 billion in public investment to develop the city’s South Lake Union neighborhood into a biotech hub and urban village, and he’s alarmed by the amount and the way Nickels proposes to raise millions of it. The soaring public price tag, previously estimated to be significantly less than 10 figures, apparently comes as a result of a three-way negotiation between the mayor’s office, the Coalition for Healthy Communities, which is a group of public-interest advocates, and Vulcan, the holding company of Microsoft co-founder and billionaire Paul Allen, which owns almost 60 acres in the mostly low-rise commercial area south of the lake and north of downtown. Critics of the negotiations say Vulcan should be bearing the cost of any social programs, such as low-income housing, that the coalition is seeking. Instead, "the mayor is picking up the tab" for such services, says council member Nick Licata. The mayor’s office and the coalition are mum about details of the negotiations with Vulcan but insist the company is being asked to make substantial contributions for neighborhood improvements and programs... The City Council has had to slash a host of things in recent years, including help for the homeless, important basic services like library staffing, parks programs, and police training. Any new resources that are generated by economic development in the city should go to restoring basic services, to say nothing of dealing with the backlog of unfunded human needs and basic infrastructure improvements throughout the city. Any contribution from the city’s general fund for streetcars and fancy boulevards in South Lake Union doesn’t even merit discussion, much less funding. Unless the coalition can push both Vulcan and the mayor to stop socializing the cost of massive, unnecessary enhancements for a private development, it is not representing the public interest at all."
See Who Owns the Earth, by James Ridgeway.
ALLIED NUCLEAR SERVICES
Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant near Savannah River Plant in South Carolina, for plutonium and uranium recovery from spent fuel (Carothers, Andre. The Death of Ellenton: Plutonium, Politics, and the State of South Carolina. Greenpeace magazine v. 13 n. 3).
Allied Ordnance, a joint venture between Nobel Industries and Shengli Holding (Singapore), is one of the major suppliers of weapons to SLORC, the military regime conrolling Burma (Burma Issues, Oct. 1993, p. 3).
ALLIED QUEENSLAND COALFIELDS LTD.
"Allied Indo Coal" export contract; adjacent to the Indonesian government's Ombilin mine (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p.149).
Columbia Road & Park Ave., Morristown NJ 07962
Aerospace, automotive, and chemicals giant. U.S. government accounts for 42 percent of its aerospace revenue. World leader in the production of hydrofluoric acid (for refrigerants). Owns 39 percent of oil and gas producer Union Texas. Bought Fisher Scientific Company in 1981 and Bendix in 1983. Owns Autolite spark plugs, Bendix brakes, and Fram auto filters. Had sales of $12 billion in 1990 (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992 (p.86).
The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on Allied-Signal in 1991-92 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
Signed preliminary agreement with Russia to reprocess nuclear weapons plutonium into civilian reactor fuel (William J. Broad, New York Times, and Seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 22, 1992).
ALPAC see Alberta-Pacific Forest Industries
Joint venture in Jamaican bauxite; involves Kaiser Aluminum, Reynolds Metals, Anaconda, and Norsk Hydro. Kaiser and Norsk Hydro (formerly W.R. Grace) got a $50 million loan guarantee from the U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation (The OPIC: a Study in Political Risk, Praeger, 1979, p. 13-14; and in OPIC's Update: OPIC Financing in the Caribbean and Central America 1990-1991).
"Alpi Spa is one of Italy’s leading timber companies. It specialises in the production of wood-based panels and has a substantial presence in the timber industries of Cameroon and the Ivory Coast." (Forest Monitor, Sold Down the River).
ALTAI DAM see Katun River Dam
ALTRIA GROUP (formerly known as PHILIP MORRIS)
120 Park Ave, New York NY 10017
Largest cigarette corporation. Tobacco is the most profitable of its operations. Marlboro, Virginia Slims, Parliament, Basic.
Philip Morris International Inc. is the most profitable international tobacco company and is committed to the responsible marketing and manufacture of its products worldwide. It produces seven of the top 20 best-selling international brands, including Marlboro, the global brand leader, Lark, Chesterfield and L&M.
Kraft Foods North America Inc. is the largest branded food company in North America and is No. 1 in 21 of its top 25 categories. Leading brands include Kraft General Foods, Maxwell House coffee, Oreo cookies, Oscar Mayer, Cool Whip, Miracle Whip, Dream Whip, Jell-o, Kool-Aid, Orowheat.
Kraft Foods International Inc. markets and sells its products in more than 145 countries and is No. 1 in 21 of its top 25 country categories. Leading global brands include Tang beverages, Philadelphia cream cheese, Jacobs coffee and Milka chocolate.
Philip Morris Capital Corporation invests in leveraged and direct finance leases. It provides Altria Group, Inc., with financial, tax and economic benefits while managing a well-diversified portfolio of assets.
Largest beer corporation: Altria Group, Inc. holds a 36% economic interest in SABMiller plc as a result of the 2002 Miller Brewing Company merger into South African Breweries plc, which formed SABMiller plc, the world's second-largest brewer. Miller, Lowenbrau.
Barnet, Richard J. and John Cavanagh. Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations and the New World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994. (Philip Morris is one of five corporate case studies in the book).
Glantz, Stanton A. et al. The Cigarette Papers.
Kluger, Richard. Ashes to Ashes.
Altria means tobacco website
"In January of 2003, Philip Morris Companies officially changed its name to the Altria Group, Inc., claiming that the change was to clarify the relationships between the parent corporation and the operating companies. This site is created to show the public the REAL reasons for this change: to hide the "taint" of tobacco and attempt to restore a corporate image brought low by decades of deception and death."
Global Campaign to Address the Global Public Health Impact of Altria's Future Breakup
"Altria Group, the parent company of Kraft, Philip Morris USA and Philip Morris International, the world’s largest multinational tobacco company, has announced that it is considering breaking up into three separate companies in the near future. Measured by units, 80 percent of Philip Morris’ sales are outside of the United States. According to the World Health Organization, tobacco kills 5 million people annually worldwide; by 2025, it will kill an estimated 10 million annually, 70% in developing countries.Decisions that an independent PMI makes will have major global public health ramifications. Over 100 organizations around the world are calling on PMI to make commitments – in advance of a breakup -- to ensure that the separation of Philip Morris International and Philip Morris USA does not worsen the tobacco epidemic."
ALUMYSA see Noranda
ALWALEED BIN TALAL
Saudi Arabian prince; nephew of King Fahad; ranked 13th richest person in the worldwith $11 billion; owns $200 million worth (14 percent) of Teledesic (acquired in April 1998), five percent of Rupert Murdoch's News Corportion, five percent of Netscape, and shares of Apple Computers, Citicorp, Disneyland Paris, and luxury hotels (Seattle Times, Apr. 14, 1998, p. D1).
"The Malaysian Group WTK owns the Brazilian company Amaplac which has also been exposed by Greenpeace, and is currently under investigation by the Federal Prosecutor in Amazonas State."
Greenpeace Exposes International Timber Criminals In French Port: Activists board ship with Amazon cargo from multinationals Lapeyre and WTK. Greenpeace International Forests Campaign, July 28, 2000, http://www.greenpeace.org/~forests/
French Commandos Arrest Greenpeace Activists In Honfleur, France: MV Aquitania abandons port without offloading Amazon criminal timber. Greenpeace International Forests Campaign, July 29, 2000, http://www.greenpeace.org/~forests/
Against the Law: the G8 and the Illegal Timber Trade, by Greenpeace International http://www.greenpeace.org/%7Eforests/resources/
AMAX became Cyprus Amax, then acquired by Phelps Dodge
200 Park Ave., New York NY 10166
"American Metal," founded in 1887 by German investors. The company severed ties with Germany during World War I. Now owns Alumax (aluminum); AMAX Energy (including AMAX Coal, the third largest producer of coal in the U.S., and AMAX Oil & Gas, which explores in 31 states); three quarters of AMAX Gold (including the Fort Knox mine in Alaska and open-pit gold mining in Nevada; a third of Aztec Mining (Australia); Bandgap Technology; a quarter of BCL (Botswana nickel and copper); half of Canada Tungsten Mining; Climax Metals (including Climax Molybdenum, the world's largest producer); 40 percent of Compania Fresnillo and Zimapan (Mexico metals mining companies). AMAX also operates in New Zealand and Europe (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 102).
AMAX owns the Climax mine near Leadville, Colorado; AMAX discovered molybdenum there, and is proud of the fact that it invented a market for the mineral. Some 460 million tons of ore have been extracted; another 150 million are anticipated before the mine is depleted. Spring runoff contaminated with heavy metals is permitted by the State of Colorado; the runoff goes to the Dillion Reservoir, used by Denver for drinking water. There have been over a hundred permit violations (1977-1988), according to the Nova television program "Poison in the Rockies," which cited a 1988 Colorado Dept. of Health report.
Sold its Australian gold mines (1980s).
In 1990, there was a bidding war against Hanson for Peabody Coal (Hanson won).
In the 1980's, Chevron (then Standard Oil of California) controlled some 22 percent of AMAX (Time, Mar. 23, 1981, p. 72).
Meadowlark Farms is an Amax subsidiary working on coal mine reclamation in the Gillette, Wyoming area (Jules Loh, AP, Seattle Times, June 28, 1992).
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Provides wood chips. Has a 205,000-acre Caribbean pine plantation established in the early 1980s near Amapa, Brazil. In August 1993, Amcel sent a shipload of chips to Longview, Washington, as a test for American mills; companies participating in the trial, believed to be the first chips imported from South America, include Weyerhaeuser, Boise Cascade, Longview Fibre, and James River Corporation (Oregonian, Aug. 27, 1993, p. E1; and Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Aug. 30, 1993, p. B4).
2 Stephen Street, London W1P 1PL, England
Aberdeen AB1 4LE, Scotland
Amerada Minerals Corporation, 700-9 Avenue Southwest, Calgary, Alberta T2P 4B3, Canada
Amerada Minerals has plants in Hanna, Bluffton, and Alta, Alberta.
Amerada was begun by Pearson in the 1920s.
AMERICA ONLINE see AOL
AMERICAN BARRICK RESOURCES
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Until 1985, Barrick was a small gold producer with profits of $7 million. That year, Barrick "purchased" the Goldstrike Mine in northern Nevada; the company will pay the U.S. government $5,190 for 1,038 acres of land containing $8 billion worth of gold. By 1993 Barrick's profits were $175 million, and the Goldstrike was being billed as North America's richest gold mine (see "The Great Gold Heist" by Thomas J. Hilliard, in Clementine: the Journal of Responsible Mineral Development, Spring/Summer 1993, p.9-10). The estimates as to the worth of Goldstrike vary; by May 1994, when Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt signed Barrick's mineral patents, it was estimated that Barrick was getting $10 billion worth of gold for less than $10,000. Babbitt was quoted as saying that "it's the biggest gold heist since the days of Butch Cassidy. But these folks stole it fair and square. The West has long been settled but the giveaway continues unabated." The Goldstrike operation is dewatering aquifers along the Humboldt River, having lowered the water table under the mine by some 1,200 feet. The groundwater deficit will be filled by water from the Humboldt, drawing as much as two-thirds of its flow (High Country News, May 30, 1994, p. 5; and June 13, 1994, p. 6, citing University of Nevada hydologist Tom Myers' The Hydrologic Effects of Open Pit Gold MIning in the Humboldt River Drainage, published by the Sierra Club, PO Box 8096, Reno NV 89507-8096).
The Mineral Policy Center, publisher of Clementine, has an Environmental Report Card on American Barrick; write to the Center, Room 550, 1325 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington DC 20005.
One Cyanamid Plaza, Wayne NJ 07470
Produces or markets in 135 countries (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p.106).
The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on American Cyanamid in 1991-92 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
Owns Lederle Labs (cancer business); acquiring 53 percent of Immunex; has a drug plant in Puerto Rico (Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar. 19, 1993, p.E1).
With Freeport McMoRan, owns Brewster Phosphates (Who Owns the Earth, by James Ridgeway).
AMERICAN EXPRESS (AmEx)
American Express Tower, World Financial Center, New York NY 10285
Begun before the Civil War as a delivery service. American Express is now a world leader in investment services (42 percent of its 1991 sales of nearly $26 billion); it is also involved in travel services (38 percent of sales), financial services (10 percent); international banking (40 countries), and information services (cable TV through its share of Warner Amex Cable, hospital billing, telemarketing, and data management). Its subsidiaries include AMEX Life Insurance, First Data Corporation, IDS Financial Services, Lehman Brothers, Shearson Lehman, Atlanta magazine, Food & Wine Magazine, and Travel & Leisure Magazine. Eighty percent of 1991 sales were in the United States, but nearly half its profits were from overseas. AmEx has 111,000 employees in 2,700 offices in 160 countries (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 108, Everybody's Business, 1980, and Everybody's Business, 1990).
In 1992, AmEx agreed to the New York State Attorney General's pressure to reveal to its cardholders that the company compiles information about their spending habits and sells it to merchants (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 108).
AmEx is involved in Third World debt "relief," including a $5.6 million debt for nature trade involving The Nature Conservancy in Costa Rica, a $3.6 million trade in Ecuador, and another in Jamaica (see page 198 in Business in the Rainforests: Corporations, Deforestation and Sustainability, by Conrad MacKerron; Investor Responsibility Research Center, Washington DC, 1993).
Involved in trade "liberalization," through the business lobby Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN) Coalition.
AmEx has received assistance from the U.S. OPIC, for its banking operations in Turkey, according to OPIC's 1991 Annual Report.
In 1991, AmEx had 40,000 cardholders in Indonesia, out a 32 million American Express cards worldwide (Wall Street Journal, Mar. 25, 1993, p. A1).
There are at least two boycotts against American Express, according to the Summer 1994 Boycott Quarterly: one called by the Grizzly Bear Task Force and Rocky Mountain Earth First!, for AmEx's financing of a ski resort in bear habitat in Colorado; contact the GBTF at PO Box 6151, Bozeman MT 59715 or EF! at PO Box 1166, Boulder CO 30306. Another boycott has been called by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals because of the promotion and sale of fur coats through AmEx's catalogues; contact PETA at PO Box 42516, Washington DC 20015-0516.
Ahlberg, Brian. American Express: The Stateless Corporation in the Multinational Monitor (Nov. 1990, p.29-32).
Friedman, Jon and John Meehan. House of Cards: Inside the Troubled World of American Express. NY: GP Putnam's Sons, 1992.
AMERICAN FINANCIAL CORP.
One East Fourth St., Cincinnati OH 45202
Diversified holding company; the eighth-largest private company in the U.S. in 1990. Its holdings are from insurance premiums: includes a majority of Chiquita, a minority of Penn Central Railroad, Charter Co. petroleum marketing, and radio and TV stations. 1990 sales of $8 billion (half of it in food products, a quarter in insurance), and a debt ratio of 91 percent (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992, p.97).
AMERICAN HARDWOODS, INC.
12430 SW Hemian Rd., Tualatin, OR 97062
Sells plywood and veneer made of mahogany, rosewood, and teak (Directory of the Forest Products Industry, 1988).
AMERICAN HOME PRODUCTS CORP.
685 Third Ave., New York NY 10017
"A conglomeration of almost 200 companies which market hundreds of products ranging from heart medicine to spaghetti" (David Lap, "American Home Products moves abroad," Multinational Monitor, April 1991, p.21-24).
Brandnames include Advil, Anacin, Dristan, Premarin, Preparation H, Robitussin, Jiffy Pop, Chef Boyardee, Norplant, Chap Stick (Hoover's Handbook of American Buisness 1992).
Operates in 18 countries, sells in 140 countries. Bought 30 food and drug companies in the 1930s depression. Uses division names (A.H. Robins, Whitehall Labs, etc.), thus making itself unknown to the average consumer. Sold its South African businesses in 1989 (Hoover's Handbook of American Buisness 1992).
AHP's Whitehall plant in Elkhart, Indiana was closed in 1990 and the facility was moved to Guayama, Puerto Rico, earning AHP a spot in "Corporate Crime & Violence in Review" (Multinational Monitor, Dec. 1991, p.11).
AMERICAN NUCLEAR CORPORATION
550 N. Poplar St., Suite 6, Casper WY 82602
Holds uranium, radium, and vanadium ores which it intends to develop. Has only 4 employees (Worldscope 1992).
AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH (AT&T)
32 Avenue of the Americas, New York NY 10013
telephone 212-605-5500 or 212-308-1820
AT&T was created by backers of telephone inventor Alexander Graham Bell, AT&T acquired Western Electric in 1882 and estern Union in 1909, was controlled by J.P. Morgan by 1907, was threatened with anti-trust action by President Wilson, forced to sell Western Union, was sued by the U.S. to divest Western Electric in 1949 but kept it, lost monopoly on telephone equipment after a 1968 FCC ruling, was sued again by the U.S. in 1982 and broken up into seven regional "Baby Bells" in 1984. AT&T is now the largest U.S. telecommunications company and the world's largest service company, as well as one of the largest computer makers (through its 1991 acquisitions of NCR and Teradata; AT&T also owns UNIX operating software). AT&T has expanded into 120 countries, including Mexico, Venezuela, Italy, the Ukraine, Poland, Indonesia, Korea, and Taiwan, Japan and China, but 90 percent of its 1991 sales of $63 billion was still in the United States (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 116).
AT&T has a 39 percent stake in the Ukraine's telephone agency (Wall Street Journal, Jan. 23, 1992, p. B1).
AT&T plans to invest another $150 million in China (Wall Street Journal, Apr. 29, 1994, p. B10).
Nuclear Free America said it would suspend its boycott of AT&T if it suspends its management of the Sandia Laboratories in New Mexico in September 1993 as scheduled; contact NFA at 325 East 25th St., Baltimore MD 21218, 410-235-3575 (National Boycott News Update, Spring 1993, p.4).
AT&T is a member of the National Wildlife Federation's Corporate Conservation Council.
Goulden, Joseph C. Monopoly: the Real Story of the American
Telephone & Telegraph Company (New York: GP Putnam's Sons, 1968).
AMERIMEX MAQUILADORA FUND L.P.
Designed to take advantage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) by moving small companies to Mexico, where wages are lower. Its prospectus says it is trying to raise $50 million to buy 9 to 13 companies with annual sales between $10 and $100 million, move them to Mexico within a year and a half, and then resell them after 3 to 8 years. The largest Mexican industrial development bank is a significant investor in the Fund (New York Times, Feb. 17, 1993, p. C1, C17).
Controlled by Gulf & Western. See Who Owns the Earth, by James Ridgeway.
200 E. Randolph Dr., Chicago IL 60601
Merged with British Petroleum in December 1998. See BP Amoco.
Organized by Rockefeller as Standard Oil of Indiana in 1889; in 1923 bought American Oil (Amoco); in 1925 it acquired Pan American Petroleum and Transport, one of the world's largest crude oil companies, with facilities in Mexico and Venezuela; expanded to petrochemicals in the 1940s; in 1978 the supertanker Amoco Cadiz wrecked off the French coast, spilling six times as much oil as the 1979 Exxon Valdez spill; the Cadiz spill resulted in a $128 million judgement against Amoco in 1990; acquired Cyprus Mines in 1979, and spun it off as Cyprus Minerals in 1985; changed name to Amoco in 1985; bought Dome Petroleum of Canada in 1988; obtained oil exploration rights in northern China in 1992; is involved in Azerbaijan; has a $2 billion 250-mile pipeline in the North Sea; brand names include American, Amoco, AmProp (real estate), Canmar (offshore oil drilling) LDO, Permalube, Spilt Second (gasoline and retail stores), Standard, and Syncrude (synthetic fuels). Owns 30 percent of the infamous Ok Tedi mine in Papua New Guuinea (see entry for Ok Tedi) (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 120).
Amoco Canada has operations in Fort Saskatchewan, Kerrobert, Regina, Ontario, Estevan, Edmonton, Medicine Hat, Brooks, Grande Prairie, Red Deer, etc.
Amoco is involved in oil drilling off the Congo coast (Oil & Gas Journal, Oct. 30, 1989, p.31).
With Ecopetrel, Amoco is evaluating millions of acres in Colombia for petroleum (The Ecologist 19(6):219-224 (1989).
Amoco began oil exploration in Burma in 1989 (Dara O'Rourke, "Oil in Burma: Fueling Oppression," Multinational Monitor, Oct. 1992 and June 1993). Amoco renewed its contract in 1993 (Burma Issues, Nov. 1993, p. 6)., but announced it was pulling out in 1994 (Multinational Monitor, Mar. 1994, p. 4).
Energy companies including Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, and Marathon have each donated an average of $100,000 to the Russian Petroleum Legislation project, which is being administered by the University of Houston Law Center. The model legislation is to be presented to the Russian Parliament for debate and adoption; if passed it could govern these companies' activities in Russia (Legal Times, Jan. 1992; Multinational Monitor, Mar. 1992, p.4).
Amoco is involved in a $500 million World Bank-sponsored oil development project in western Siberia (Doug Norlen, pers. comm., Feb. 1996, citing Ellen Schmidt, WEED, Germany).
See also Pertamina.
AMSTAR see WOTE.
ANACONDA subsidiary of ARCO click here for clean-up of Anaconda's toxic waste
Anaconda was incorporated in Montana in 1891; in 1899, Rockefeller and other directors of Standard Oil bought control through stock manipulation of their Amalgamated Copper holding company (Montana: a History of Two Centuries, by Malone et al, 1991, p.210-211).
In the 1920s, Anaconda ranked as the eighth-largest U.S. manufacturer. ARCO bought Anaconda in 1977 (Everybody's Business, 1990, p.465, 483).
With Kennecott, Anaconda produced over 60 percent of the U.S. supply of copper and controlled 90 percent of Chile's copper. Anaconda refined Chilean copper from the Potrerillos mines of the Andes Copper Co. in its Raritan Copper Works in Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Other Anaconda refineries were at Great Falls and Anaconda, Montana (World Resources and Industries, 1951, p.705). The Chilean operations were nationalized by Allende in 1971 (Multinationals and the Third World, by Louis Turner, 1973, p.11,324-325).
ARCO closed the old Anaconda copper mine in Butte, Montana in 1980, citing the cost of meeting environmental regulations. Industrialist Dennis Washington bought it in 1985 and reopened it as Montana Resources Inc., paying half the usual union wage (Seattle Times, Feb. 15, 1988, p.A6).
See Alpart (Jamaican bauxite joint venture).
Manufactures and distributes herbicides and other pesticides; Ancom chairman D. E. Barnes wrote a letter to then-U.S. Senator Al Gore, who had sponsored a resolution calling for the protection of Malaysian rainforest, accusing Gore of being taken in by the half-truths and outright lies" of environmental groups, who claimed Malaysia's forest were endangered (Asian Timber, June 1992, p. 12).
Anderson Group and Homag Maschinenbau have set up a joint venture woodworking machinery factory east of Shanghai, China; most of the factory's output is intended for export to other Asian countries (Asian Timber, June 1993, p.6).
See WOTE and Merchants of Grain, by Dan Morgan.
ANGLO AMERICAN CORP.
44 Main St., PO Box 61587, Marshalltown 2107, Johannesburg 2001, South Africa
telephone (27) 11-638-9111
Founded in 1917 by Sir Ernest Oppenheimer, who consolidated the South African mining industries begun by Cecil Rhodes and others in the nineteenth century. The company is called Anglo American because American banker J.P. Morgan & Co. supplied half of the initial capital of $1 million; mining engineer Herbert Hoover was also involved.
Anglo's history and basic information can be found in The Global Marketplace, by Moskowitz (1987); see also The Randlords by Geoffrey Wheatcroft (1985), and "Anglo American Corporation: A Pillar of Apartheid," in Multinational Monitor (Sept. 1988).
Now composed of Anglo, De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., and Minerals and Resources Corp. (Minorco). Anglo owns 34 percent of De Beers (Worldscope shows 38.7 percent in 1992). De Beers owns 38 percent of Anglo. The E. Oppenheimer & Son Co. owns eight percent of Anglo American. When companies fled South Africa because of human rights conditions there, Anglo American bought up more than half the stock on the Johannesburg Exchange (Global Marketplace, 1987).
Anglo American Gold Investment Co. had operating profit margins of 67 percent in 1991, 87 percent in 1990, 90 percent in 1989, and 93 percent in 1988. Anglo American Industrial Corporation operates steel and pulp mills and manufactures industrial chemicals (Worldscope Global records).
Minerals and Resources Group (Minorco)
The Anglo American subsidiary Minerals and Resources Corp. (Minorco) has zinc mines in the Yukon (Hudson Bay Mining); natural gas in Texas (Adobe Resources); a 14 percent interest in Salomon Inc. (which owns Wall Street's Salomon Bros., Phillip Bros., and Phibro Energy); a 29 percent of Consolidated Gold Fields (London), which had 26 percent of Newmont Mining (New York), which had 30 percent of Peabody Holding; a third of Engelhard (U.S.) (catalysts, metals, kaolin); over half of Inspiration Resources (copper, zinc, gold, silver, nickel, coal, agribusiness) (Global Marketplace, 1987).
In 1990, Minorco purchased Freeport-McMoRan Gold Co.; the name was changed to Independence Mining (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1992, p.151). See also Freeport-McMoRan.
Has holdings in 250 mining operations in 22 countries besides South Africa. Sells diamonds, gold, and platinum, and employs a quarter million people (Global Marketplace, 1987).
Anglo also owns shares in South Africa's six other mining companies (Global Marketplace, 1987).
Operates the Navachab open pit gold mine in Namibia. Anglo is also active in Botswana, exploring for copper at Maun and nickel/copper at Martin's drift (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991, p.104).
Isabella heap leach gold mine in Zimbabwe, north of Bulawayo (Minerals Industry International, Jan. 1990, p.2).
Bought South Africa's biggest bank from Barclays in 1986.
De Beers Consolidated Mines
Anglo American subsidiary De Beers is the world's diamond cartel Cartel control of 80 percent of the world's diamonds. Begun in 1880 by Cecil; Oppenheimer got control in 1929. De Beers' main office is in London; as a monopoly, it cannot operate openly in the U.S. (Frontline documentary, 1994).
Controls the supply of diamonds from Zaire.
De Beers is financing a diamond treatment plant at Luanda, Angola for the state-owned Endiama company (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991, p.104).
De Beers is involved in coal mining in South Africa with PWH South Africa (subsidiary of Renstein & Koppel AG). Kromdraai and Kleinkopje coal mines (both part of SA Coal Estate). Amcoal exports coal through the Richards Bay terminal (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991, p.54).
De Beers subsidiary Willcroft Co. Ltd. of Bermuda, and Willcroft subsidiary Tanex Ltd., have signed a diamond prospecting and mining agreement with Tanzania. It covers 22,000 square kilometers in Mwanza, Shinyanga, and Tabora regions. Willcroft has been a joint venture partner with Tanzania in Williamson Diamonds Ltd. since 1958 (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p.178).
Diamond supplies in Australia and Russia may threaten De Beers' control. De Beers did manage to be exclusive buyer of the Asutralian Ashton mine's industrial-grade and small gem diamonds.
The Swiss affiliate of De Beers loaned the Soviet Union a billion dollars in 1990, in exchange for the exclusive right to market Russia's diamonds for five years; the deal may be worth $5 billion. De Beers opened an office in Moscow in 1992. But Russia's need for cash may eventually overrdie the contract signed by Gorbachev (AP and Reuters, Seattle Times, Aug. 12, 1990; Frontline documentary, 1994).
De Beers makes synthetic diamonds in Ireland Frontline documentary, 1994).
To develop oil field in Kazakhstan (New York Times, July 22, 1992, p. C8(N).
ANGLO GRANITE LTD.
Anglo Granite Ltd. is a joint venture between Angola's ornamental stones company Roremina and International Granite of Namibia (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991, p.103).
ANGLO-PACIFIC RESOURCES see disk
ANGLO-PERSIAN OIL see British Petroleum
Privately-held limited partnership headed by ex-Texaco engineer Gil Labbe. Anglo-Suisse is a partner (with Anglo-American's Phibro Energy) in the White Nights oil venture in Siberia (see White Nights entry). It also operates in Morocco, Pakistan, and Indonesia since 1984. The name was chosen "to disguise the company's American origin," yet the White Nights venture's capital comes largely from Saloman's Phibro Energy (itself owned by Anglo-American, a South African company) (Wall Street Journal, Jan. 29, 1992, p. A1; see also Wall Street Journal, July 7, 1992, p. A11).
One Busch Place, St. Louis MO 63118
World's largest brewery, with almost half the U.S. beer market. Brandnames include Budweiser, Carlsberg, Michelob, Eagle Snacks, and El Charrito Mexican food. Also owns Busch Gardens/Sea World and Cypress Gardens in Florida, the St. Louis Cardinals baseball team, Busch Agricultural Resources (grain processing), Container Recovery Corp. (recycling), and St. Louis Refridgerator Car Co. (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p.124).
The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on Anheuser-Busch in 1991-92 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
Anheuser-Busch purchased almost 18 percent of Mexico's largest brewer, Grupo Modelo of Mexico City, for $477; Modelo's products include Corona beer (Seattle Post-Intelligencer, June 18, 1993, p.E8).
AOL (America Online)
In January 2000, America Online agreed to buy Time Warner for about $178 billion in stock and assumed debt, with the new corporation to be called AOL Time Warner.
2000 Post Oak Rd., Houston TX 77056
telephone 713 296 6000
Apache Petroleum (Minneaplois MN limited partnership merged into Apache Corp. in 1988).
Oil, gas, and related services. Apache had 1991 sales of $342 million (Worldscope database record).
Apache Oil is involved in oil drilling in Burma. Myanmar Oil & Gas Enterprise (MOGE), the agency overseeing oil and gas development in Burma, is controlled by the military regime SLORC; since 1989, MOGE has signed multimillion dollar contracts with many foreign oil companies. A subsidiary of the Thai national oil company, PTT Exploration and Production, has proposed developing natural gas in Burma's Gulf of Mataban and shipping it to Thailand through an undersea pipeline. (See article by Dara O'Rourke, "Oil in Burma: Fueling Oppression," Multinational Monitor 13(10):7-11, Oct. 1992).
Apache and a subsidiary of Santa Fe Energy have two oil blocks totalling 500,000 acres in the Irrawaddy River Valley in Burma (Business Wire, July 1, 1992, p.1).
Gold mining in the Philippines (Engineering & Mining Journal, Mar. 1992, p.136-143).
APRIL see Asia Pacific Resources International Holdings and Sinar Mas
AQZA DHARMA see Zapata
ARABIAN AMERICAN OIL COMPANY see Aramco
ARACRUZ CELLULOSE S.A.
Rua Lauro Muller, 116 Floors 21, 22, 40, 22290 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
telephone 21 541 6637 fax 21 295 7943
Created in 1967, Aracruz's big jump came in 1979, when its forestry team developed a cloning method that allows the selection and propagation of faster-growing eucalyptus trees that resist local pests and diseases. The method is based on planting saplings grown from tree cuttings rather than from seeds. Aracruz plants an average of 100,000 eucalyptus saplings a day on its326,000 acres of land in Espirito Santo and Bahia (Wall Street Journal, May 21, 1992, p. A8).
Morgan Stanley, Dean Witter report (1998): Aracruz owns 138,000 hectares of eucalyptus plantations intermingled with 62,000 hectares of native forest reserves. Its competitive edge lies in its proximity to a stable source of abundant, low-cost timber: Its eucalyptus forests have high yields and a short seven-year growing cycle. Aracruz is entirely self-sufficient in wood supply and provides most of its energy and chemicals needs internally. Capacity additions in 1997 have enhanced its economies of scale, and it is currently expanding capacity by 200,000 tons. Aracruz has a strong balance sheet, with a current net debt-to-equity ratio of 31%. (Pulp and Paper: Latin America/Latin Edge, page 14 Summary: Report by Morgan Stanley, Dean Witter. Source: Investext Reports Date: 09/30/1998).
An October 2001 news release stated that Aracruz was founded in 1972, and currently owned 144,000 hectares (356,000 acres) of eucalyptus plantations in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Espirito Santo, and owned the world's largest pulp mill with an annual capacity of 1.3 million metric tons. In year 2000 Aracruz posted net sales of $732 million and net income of $201 million.
Aracruz exports about a million tons of bleached eucalyptus pulp per year, mostly to the U.S. and Europe. Brazil-based, with a Norwegian chairman (Erling Lorentzen). Aracruz has about 15,000 hectares (37,000 acres) of eucalyptus tree plantations in east-central Espiritu Santo state, Brazil, in the homeland of the Tupiniquim peoples. Aracruz has considered expanding into the Amazon with a pulp mill in Maranhao and getting involved in the Vale do Rio Doce Forest Centers project in Carajas (see entry for Vale do Rio Doce). Aracruz has used chlorine in its bleaching process, and was fined for toxic emissions in 1991, but says it plans to switch to oxygen bleaching (The Greenpeace Book of Greenwash (1992), p. 27-28; and Earth Island Journal, Summer 1992, p. 11).
"At first glance, Aracruz Celulose S.A. is the sort of company environmentalists love to hate. At its pulp mill at Aracruz on Brazil's Atlantic coastline, truckloads of logs freshly chopped from nearby forests go through a screaming mill that grinds them into sheets of pulp that are exported to the U.S. and Europe to make paper. Yet, despite Brazil's reputation as a destroyer of tropical rain forests, many ecologists are praising Aracruz. 'I must say it's very acceptable ecologically,' says Jose Lutzenberger, one of Brazil's leading environmentalists and until recently the country's environment secretary. 'In forestry, I have no fight whatsoever with them. What they're doing can be used as a model of forestry.' Indeed, instead of felling native trees, Aracruz cuts only eucalyptus trees it grows itself in already deforested areas. New trees are then planted to replace what is harvested (Wall Street Journal, May 21, 1992, p. A8).
Aracruz is trying to be the "first Brazilian company to raise capital in international markets" (PPI: Pulp & Paper International, Oct. 1991, p. 51; PPI, Nov. 1991, p. 18; and PPI, July 1992, p. 23).
During the June 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development at Rio, the Greenpeace ship Rainbow Warrior II demonstrated at Aracruz's port of Portcel in 1992 to protest "the cutting of native forests and the pollution of the sea by organo chlorines." Aracruz claimed its pollution was low, and that its plantations are all on land deforested before it began operating (PPI: Pulp & Paper International, July 1992, p. 23; and "Greenpeace Blockades South American Ports" in Earth Island Journal, Summer 1992, p. 11).
Anglo American Corporation Of South Africa Agrees To Purchase Brazilian Aracruz (May 1999): Anglo American Corporation of South Africa (AAC), through its wholly owned subsidiary ARH Ltd and Mondi Brazil, has agreed to purchase from Souza Cruz, a Brazilian subsidiary of BAT Industries a 28 per cent voting interest in the common stock of Aracruz Celulose SA, for US dlrs 250 million. This represents a 11.8 per cent equity interest in Aracruz which is the world's largest and lowest cost producer of bleached eucalyptus pulp at its mill situated in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. This acquisition represents a major step in the development of the pulp and paper interests of the AAC/Amic and Minorco Groups. These are held through Mondi Ltd, owned 51.7 per cent by Amic and 31.2 per cent by AAC, and Mondi Europe in which Mondi Ltd owns 5 per cent and Minorco 95 per cent. Minorco and AAC have agreed in principle that the Mondi Brazil holding will be injected into Mondi Europe in exchange for equity in Mondi Europe. This is subject to agreement on the value of Mondi Europe relative to the purchase price of the Aracruz holding. This will strengthen Mondi Ltd's access to world pulp markets and will lead to ongoing exchanges of production and forestry technology between Aracruz, Mondi Ltd and Mondi Europe to the immediate benefit of all companies. The purchase will be financed entirely from ARH's non-South African resources and will therefore have no impact on South Africa's foreign currency reserves. The acquisition is a further development in the strategy of developing Mondi Ltd and Mondi Europe as globally competitive players in the international forest products industry (company news release, May 9, 1999).
Ownership (as of October 2001): Rival firm Votorantim Celulose e Papel (VCP) to acquire Anglo's 28 percent voting stake (12.3 percent equity stake) in Aracruz for about $370 million. VCP would have a preferential option for other voting stakes in Aracruz, which are owned by Lorentzen and Safra of Brazil, with 28 percent each, and Brazil's National Development Bank with 12.5 percent. Traders said the incorporation of VCP, part of Brazil's Votorantim conglomerate, could also improve Aracruz's business abroad. ``There are some synergies there. VCP produces paper and pulp. Aracruz just produces pulp. So maybe Aracruz could increase its capacity and sell to VCP,'' said John Carioba, director of Indusval brokerage in Sao Paulo. It owns the world's largest pulp mill with an annual capacity of 1.3 million metric tons. (Reuters, Oct 3 and 4, 2001).
Tupinikim and Guarani police action (2006): "On 20 January 2006, Brazil returned to the period of Military Dictatorship (1964-1985) when human rights were systematically violated and the institutions lacked the capacity to protect and defend citizens against the aggression of an authoritarian State. Three delegates and 120 Federal Policemen from the Command for Tactical Operations carried out a war operation to take the Tupinikim and Guarani indigenous peoples in Espirito Santo state out of the 11,009 hectares of lands they had taken back peacefully in May 2005. Aracruz Celulose controlled these lands for almost 40 years. The police action was based on a decision on 7 December 2005 regarding this case by Federal Judge Rogério Moreira Alves from Linhares, in favour of the Aracruz company... Hereby we would like to show our indignation about the violation of human rights, which happened on 20th January in indigenous lands in the North of Espírito Santo. In the action of expelling the Tupinikim and Guarani indigenous peoples from their lands, the most violent resources were utilized, resulting in at least 13 wounded Indians, 2 Indians arrested and processed and 2 indigenous villages completely destroyed by the use of machines and employees of Aracruz Celulose..." (message from World Rainforest Movement, January 2006).
ARAMCO (ARABIAN AMERICAN OIL COMPANY)
Standard Oil of California (Chevro) and Texaco; Mobil bought 10 percent in 1948 (Everybody's Business, 1990, p. 472).
ARCHER DANIELS MIDLAND (ADM)
4666 Faries Parkway, PO Box 1470, Decatur IL 62525
telephone 217-424-5200 or 217-424-5839 public relations
At least 43 percent of ADM's profits ($644 million in 1994) come from products subsidized by the U.S. taxpayer, including sugar, ethanol, and grain exports (Bovard, 1995, Cato Institute Policy Analysis No. 241). ADM's subsidies and its political activities earned it a place as one of Multinational Monitor's 10 worst criminals of 1995 (Russell Mokhiber and Andrew Wheat, Multinational Monitor, Dec. 1995, p. 9-16; see also article in Mother Jones).
Oil seed and corn provided three-quarters of ADM's 1991 sales; wheat flour was another 10 percent. ADM operated 170 plants in 8 countries, including Canada, Germany, Holland, and the UK. The family of ADM CEO Dwayne Andreas ("the Soybean King") owned 8 percent of ADM's stock worth more than $200 million in 1990. Through its half-interest in Alfred C. Toepfer International (ACTI), ADM controlled 45 percent of Eastern Europe's commodities imports from the West (Everybody's Business, 1990; Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993).
1995: ADM biochemical executive Mark Whitacre alleged that ADM was involved in corporate espionage, technology theft, and in price fixing; ADM fired him in August 1995 and accused him of stealing at least $2.5 million from the company (Mokhiber and Wheat, Dec. 1995).
2000: "Former Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) executive Michael D. Andreas will spend an additional 12 months in prison, and Terrance Wilson, another former ADM executive, will serve an additional nine months, on top of each of their two-year terms imposed in July 1999. Following the order of the 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Chicago which found that U.S. District Judge Blanche Manning erred in not handing down stiffer sentences originally imposed, Judge Manning resentenced the two former ADM senior executives last Friday. Convicted in a historic lysine price-fixing conspiracy the three-judge appeals court panel affirmed the convictions and ordered more prison time for the pair, calling Andreas, an ex-vice chairman of ADM and son of former CEO and board chairman Dwayne Andreas, "the ultimate leader of the price-fixing cabal." In July 1999, Andreas and Wilson, in addition to receiving their prison sentences were each fined $350,000, and began serving their sentences in October 1999... ADM, "Supermarkup to the World," pleaded guilty to criminal price-fixing charges of lysine and citric acid, which is used in soft drinks and other products in 1996 and paid a then-record $100 million fine. In September 1998, a federal jury convicted Andreas and Wilson, along with ex-FBI informant and one-time ADM executive Mark Whitacre, on charges stemming from the global scheme to rig the price of the livestock feed additive lysine." (Al Krebs, Agribusiness Examiner, Issue # 88, Sept 25, 2000 http://www.ea1.com/CARP/).
Clean Air fine - Illinois
"U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 5, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), and Illinois EPA have reached agreement with Archer Daniels Midland on alleged violations of Federal and State clean-air regulations at the company's wet corn mill plant in Decatur, Illinois. The agreement, resolving a civil complaint, means a $1,463,500 penalty... and the installation of scrubbers costing $1,600,000 to cut air pollution from the company's two feed dryers... 'We are pleased that ADM has agreed to install scrubbers to control pollution from the two feed dryers,' said EPA Region 5 Administrator Francis X. Lyons." (Agribusiness Examiner, Issue #102, Jan 19, 2001).
Sources of information on Archer Daniels Midland
Agribusiness Accountability Project. The Great American Grain Robbery. Al Krebs' Corporate Agribusiness Research Project (CARP) provides excellent coverage of ADM and other agribusinesses at http://www.ea1.com/CARP/
Bovard, James. Archer Daniels Midland: A Case Study in Corporate Welfare. Cato Institute, Policy Analysis No. 241, Sept. 26, 1995. Internet http://www.cato.org/pa241es.html).
Eichenwald, Kurt. The Informant: A True Story. (New York: Broadway Books, 2000).
Lieber, James. Rats in the Grain: The Dirty Tricks and Trials of Archer Daniels Midland, The Supermarket to the World (Four Walls, Eight Windows, 2000).
Seattle Times. ADM to Pay $65 Million to Settle Two Civil Suits. Sept. 28, 1996, p. D1. (Citric acid price-fixing suit settled for $35 million; shareholder class action suit settled for $30 million; both were part of U.S. government investigation into price-fixing of lysine, citric acid, and high-fructose corn syrup).
ARCO (Atlantic Richfield Oil Company)
515 S. Flower St., Los Angeles, CA 90071
Northwest Java, Indonesia, oil drilling (Oil & Gas Journal, Oct. 16, 1989). See also Pertamina.
Exploratory drilling on Quechua lands in Pastaza, Oriente, eastern Ecuador (World Rainforest Report, Jan. 1991, p.4; and Earth Island Journal, Winter 1991, p.11). ARCO received a contract for Block 10 in November 1988 (Rainforest Action Network Action Alert No. 58, March 1991). As an example of what "exploration" can mean, in 1989 alone ARCO cleared 372,000 trees from 2,600 acres of forest, built 1420 helipads, and detonated 127,000 pounds of explosives (World Rainforest Report, Apr/June 1992, p.5). In May 1992, the president of Ecuador recognized 19 traditional territories of the Achuar, Quechua, Zaparo and Shiwar people in the Pastaza province. These peoples still seek a constitutional amendment to recognize and protect the indigenous nationalities of Ecuador (Rainforest Action Network Action Alert, No. 73, June 1992).
See Business in the Rainforests: Corporations, Deforestation and Sustainability, by Conrad B. MacKerron (Investor Responsibility Research Center, Washington DC, 1993).
ARCTIC ALASKA FISHERIES
Along with its subsidiary Arctic Fisheries, purchased by Tyson Foods in 1992 (Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Nov. 10, 1993, p. B10).
Its Arctic Fisheries subsidiary was fined for illegal dumping of fish wastes from 1987 to 1991; see entry for Arctic Fisheries.
Arctic Alaska's Royal Fisheries subsidiary was charged by the State of Alaska with 45 misdemeanor counts for illegally hauling more than 1.5 milllion pounds of crab around Adak Island and the Bering Sea in 1992 and 1993. Arctic and Tyson were sued by Alsaka in 1993 for illegal fishing off the Aleutians from 1990 to 1992 (Seattle Times, Dec. 16, 1993, p. B2).
See also entries for Arctic Fisheries and Tyson Foods.
A subsidiary of Arctic Alaska Fisheries until November 1992; both were bought by Tyson Foods (Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Nov. 10, 1993, p. B10). Agreed to pay $725,000 to settle a federal civil suit filed by the U.S. EPA, for illegally dumping fish waste into Lost Harbor, Akun Island in the Aleutians, Alaska, between 1987 and 1991 (Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Nov. 10, 1993, p. B10).
See also entries for Arctic Alaska Fisheries and Tyson Foods.
Deland, FL 32720
Orange juice from Brazil, distributed on United Airlines, Sept. 1989. According to the Federal Register (July 13, 1989), the U.S. Customs Service (Department of the Treasury) no longer requires that imported juice concentrate be labeled with all countries of origin.
Japanese veneer, plywood, and sawtimber operation in central Kalimantan, Indonesia (SKEPHI, 1990, Selling Our Common Heritage).
South Kalimantan coast (Indonesia) coal export contract owned by Utah (a subsidiary of BHP) and Bakrie Bros. Group of Indonesia. The coal comes from the Sang-sang (Senakin) and Satui deposits (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p.149).
2-36-9 Meaeno-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 124
Sells Pentax camera lenses. Asahi is associated with Itochu (World Rainforest Report, v.6 n.2, 1990).
144 Fourth Avenue S.W., Suite 2100, Calgary Alberta T2P 3N4, Canada
telephone (403) 269-5521
Oil, gas, minerals exploration and production. Merged into Gulf Canada Resources Ltd. in August 1988 (Worldscope database record).
Exploratory oil drilling contracts with Indonesia signed 1989 (Oil & Gas Journal, Aug. 7, 1989, p.3). Drilling in northern Sumatra, Indonesia (Oil & Gas Journal, July 24, 1989, p.24).
ASARCO (American Smelting and Refining Company)
180 Maiden Lane, New York NY 10038
ASARCO has mines in the US, Canada, and Peru, where it extracts copper (about three-fourths of sales) and zinc. ASARCO's holdings include 54% of Southern Peru Copper and 50% of a copper-molybdenum mine in Montana. Other ASARCO businesses include aggregates firm American Limestone and specialty chemicals producer Enthone-OMI. ASARCO has traded off most of its silver assets to partner Coeur d'Alene in exchange for a 19% stake in that company. (Hoovers.com, December 1999).
By 1814, the Gunpowder Copper Works, predecessor to Asarco's Baltimore refinery, supplied copper to Paul Revere's company. Controlled by the Guggenheims from 1900 to the 1920s. Copper mines in Arizona and Peru; coal in Illinois; silver in Idaho and Mexico; zinc in Tennessee; asbestos in Canada. Copper, silver, lead, and zinc in Australia (Mount Isa). Gold in Nicaragua in the 1930s. In the late 1970s, Bendix Corp. became the largest shareholder, and Chase Manhattan and Manufacturers Hanover made large loans to Asarco (Everybody's Business, 1980). Subsidiaries include MEDIMSA (Mexico Desarrollo Industrial Minero), IMASA Group (chemicals), Southern Peru Copper Co.), Enthone OMI (chemicals). Mines in Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Missouri, Montana, Tennessee, Australia (since the 1930s), Canada, Mexico (since 1901), and Peru (since the 1920s). In 1991 Asarco produced 13 percent of the western world's copper, 12 percent of its silver, 13 percent of its lead, and 9 percent of its zinc. Its largest shareholder, at 25 percent, is MIM Holdings (Australia); ASARCO in turn owns 17.5 percent of MIM (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 130). ASARCO's relationship with MIM varies; in 1987 Asarco sold part of investment in MIM Holdings Limited for $381 million, and in 1996 sold stock in MIM for $326 million (1997 Annual Report).
Working on sulpheric acid leaching projects with the University of Arizona at Cyprus Casa Grande and Santa Cruz sites (Minerals Industry International, Mar. 1990, p.2).
The San Andreas mine in Honduras is an open pit heap leach operation; the mine was begun in the 16th century. Many companies are involved: ASARCO; Gold Mines of America; Fisher-Watt Gold Co; Madeline Mines Ltd; Milner Consolidated; Kennecott has 80 percent interest (Engineering & Mining Journal, Feb. 1992, p.7).
Numerous ASARCO smelters have come under fire (and lawsuits) for their pollution, including Arizona; El Paso, Texas; and Tacoma, Washington.
In March 1996, the U.S. sued ASARCO, Coeur d'Alene Mines, Hecla Mining, and Sunshine Mining, alleging that these corporations and several affiliates were responsible for the clean-up of more than 70 million tons of lead, zinc, cadmium, and other toxic mining wastes spread over 1,500 square miles of the Coeur d'Alene River basin in northern Idaho in the past century (The Lands Council (Spokane WA) Transitions, Mar-Apr. 1996).
In late 1999, it was announced that ASARCO was acquired by ten percent owner Grupo Mexico for $1.8 billion. After a merger between ASARCO and Cyprus Amax Minerals fell apart in 1999, Grupo Mexico won a bidding war for ASARCO against rival Phelps Dodge. Phelps Dodge succeeded in acquiring Cyprus Amax (Hoovers.com, citing, New York Times, Oct. 16, 1999 and other sources).
ASARCO had acquired Southern Peru Copper in 1994 and 1995, and in 1997, Asarco sold shares in Grupo Mexico for $323 million (ASARCO, 1997 Annual Report). Meanwhile Phelps Dodge succedded in acquiring Cyprus Amax.
ASHANTI GOLDFIELDS CORPORATION
The major goldmining company in Ghana for over a hundred years (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991, p.103); its history is covered in Business History Review 62: 502-515, Autumn 1988.
1000 Ashland Drive, Russell KY 41169
Second-largest independent oil refiner in the U.S.; purchases most oil from others. Largest chemical and plastics distributor in the U.S. Ashland chief Orin Atkins admitted making illegal contributions to Richard Nixon (1975; fined $1,000), and selling stolen documents to the National Iranian Oil Company (1988-89; given probation). Ashland's refineries (Kentucky, Minnesota, and Ohio) need massive environmental upgrades. Ashland's subsidiaries and joint ventures include AECOM Technology, APAC (one of the largest highway construction companies in the U.S.), Arch Mineral (coal), Ecogard (oil recycling), LOOP offshore oil terminal (Louisiana), Scurlock Permian (crude oil), SuperAmerica (retail), and Valvoline (automobile products). Began oil exploration in Nigeria in 1973 (all from Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993, p. 131, and "Coddled Criminals" in Everybody's Business, 1980, p. 620).
Ashland is interlocked with Arch, Massey, Fluor, and other mining and petrochemical corporations.
Offices in Japan and Hanoi, Vietnam.
Consulting firm advising U.S. companies on doing business in Vietnam. Ashta's clients include American Express, Lehman Brothers, and Revlon (Wall Street Journal, Apr. 29, 1994, p. B6).
ASIA PACIFIC RESOURCES INTERNATIONAL HOLDINGS LTD. (APRIL)
Bermuda and Singapore
Bermuda-based, Singapore-headquartered holding company for the Indonesian conglomerate Sinar Mas. Sold $150 million in stock in the U.S. and Canada to set up operations in Indonesia, India, and China (Carrere and Lohman, Pulping the South, p. 220). See also Sinar Mas.
"UPM-Kymmene of Finland and Singapore-based Asia Pacific Resources International Holdings Ltd.(APRIL), have agreed to establish a strategic alliance to develop jointly their respective fine paper operations in Europe and Asia. In Europe, UPM-Kymmene will hold 70% and APRIL 30% of a new company called UPM-Kymmene Fine Paper, which will comprise UPM-Kymmene's fine paper units, Nordland Papier in Germany and Kymi in Finland. This new company will be the largest fine paper producer in Europe with a combined annual capacity of 1.7 million tonnes of paper and 460,000 tonnes of related pulp. Similarly, in Asia, APRIL will hold 70% and UPM-Kymmene 30% of a new company, APRIL Fine Paper, which will comprise APRIL's paper mills under construction in Sumatra, Indonesia and China. These mills are expected to come into production in 1997 and 1998. Even if APRIL states that it is not involved in logging in rainforests, the fact is that the material basis of the new alliance is the nearby Riau Pulp pulpmill, whose production is almost completely based on rainforest wood. The mill, which started operations in 1994, produced last year about 600,000 tonnes of short-fibre pulp from natural forests. Until now the company has only planted 7,000 hectares of acacia, which are not only totally insufficient to feed the giant mill, but additionally will only be ready for logging by the year 2002. It is expected that the mill will run on rainforest wood, which will be needed at a rate of over 3 million m3/year. This will mean clearcuts of at least 25,000 hectares of rainforest each year and a total of 200,000 hectares. APRIL has also a bad reputation in the social area. Land acquisitions by the company have caused serious conflicts with local communities and working conditions in its pulp and paper mills are poor. (World Rainforest Movement Bulletin No. 6, citing Friends of the Earth-Finland Forest Group. Press release 15.9.97. For further information, please contact: Marko Ulvila +358 3 212 0097; email@example.com).
ASIA PULP & PAPER
Holding company for the Indonesian Sinar Mas group, with a Singapore headquarters. APP is the largest pulp and paper producer in Indonesia, with more than 5 million tons in 1997. Filed an initial public offering of $390 million in stock to finance mills in China, India, and Indonesia. Itochu bought $100 million of APP stock in April 1997 (Carrere and Lohmann, 1996, Pulping the South, p. 217; Asia Pulp & Paper, Summer 1997, p.p. 15-17).
ASIAN RARE EARTH
Asian Rare Earth (owned by Mitsubishi and others) moved its toxic operations to Papan, Malaysia in 1982. Rare earth monazite ore mined for electronics compounds; radioactive waste by-products include mitrium and thorium. There were demonstrations by thousands of people, and a Malaysian court ordered Asian Rare Earth to keep radioactivity on its property and protect workers (Castleman, B.I. and Navarro, V. International Mobility of Hazardous Products, Industries, and Wastes. Annual Review of Public Health, 1987, 8: 1-19, citing AMPO: Japan-Asia Q. Rev. 1985, 17(1): 56-59, and New Straits Times, Oct. 16, 1985).
ASIE ZAPATA see Zapata
ASSOCIATED BISCUITS see Kohlberg Kravis Roberts
Part of a consortium with an $800 million contract for the first phase of a $6 billion, 300-mile railroad that is to cross the Venezuelan Andes, from Caracas to the mouth of the Orinoco River. Other companies involved include Cogefar-Impresit SPA and Marubeni (Engineering News Record, Mar. 23, 1992, p.60).
ASTILLAS EXPORTACIONES see Mitsubishi
ASTRA (P.T. ASTRA INTERNATIONAL)
Involved in an Irian Jaya, Indonesia, eucalyptus pulp and paper scheme with Scott Paper. Scott apparently pulled out in October 1989, but Astra is continuing with the state-owned forestry corporation Inhutani II to build chip and pulp mills (Reuters, Nov. 27, 1990; World Rainforest Report, Apr-May 1991, p.5; and RAM's Tropical Echoes, Winter 1990, p.8). In August 1992, Astra announced that for financial reasons, it was also pulling out of the project, which had grown to a $654 million investment involving 750,000 acres of eucalyptus plantations in a 2.2 million acre area in the Bade region of Irian Jaya. Indonesian Ministry of Forestry announced that the project will continue and new investors will be sought (World Rainforest Report, Oct-Dec. 1992, p.10).
Astra, Shell (Shell Nusantara Forestry BV), and the Indonesian-state-owned forestry corporation Inhutani have signed an agreement for the development of 100,000-hectares of tree plantations over ten years in South Kalimantan, Indonesia (World Rainforest Report, No. 21, Feb. 1992, p.26, citing Jakarta Post, Dec. 19, 1991).
Astra has an 890,000-hectare timber concession in Indonesia, the largest to date (SKEPHI, Selling Our Common Heritage, 1990, p.18).
United Tractors, a subsidiary of Astra and Nissho Iwai, controls the Berau coal mine on the Latek River 600 km north of Samarinda, East Kalimantan (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p.150).
AT&T see American Telephone & Telegraph
ATLANTIC RICHFIELD OIL COMPANY see Arco
Republic Plaza, 370 Seventeenth Street, Denver Co 80202
telephone (303) 825-1200
Gold exploration, mining, and selling; 1992 sales of $29.6 million, down from 1988's $37 million. There are "Atlas" mining and metalworking machinery corporations in England and Sweden, and an Atlas Steels (blast furnaces and foundries) in Australia (Worldscope database records).
Gold and copper mining in the Philippines (Engineering & Mining Journal (E&MJ), Mar. 1992, p.136-143).
AURUL GOLD MINE (Romania) see Esmerelda Exploration
AUSTRALASIAN PETROLEUM see Mobil
Avila's Neo Energy division is drilling for oil in the Putamayo area of southwestern Colombia (Oil & Gas Journal, Oct. 9, 1989, p. 42).
AZUSA ROCK COMPANY subsidiary of Mitsubishi